Adiponectin hormone, diabetes, insulin, influence of diet by Ray Sahelian, M.D.
Adiponectin, an adipocyte -specific plasma protein, has been reported to
exhibit protective effects against atherosclerosis as well as an
insulin-sensitizing effect. Increase in adiponectin level after treatment
with the insulin sensitizers pioglitazone and metformin may improve
arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adiponectin
may help prevent fatty deposits from forming in blood vessels and has
anti-inflammatory properties. Low levels of the protein are thought to
contribute to metabolic syndrome. Exercise and proper diets help increase
plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and adiponectin may contribute
to increased vascular inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis in
patients with end-stage renal disease and co-morbid diabetes.
Adiponectin and diabetes
Adiponectin is an adipokine that is specifically and abundantly expressed
in adipose tissue and directly sensitizes the body to insulin.
As plasma levels of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells, rise,
the risk of type 2 diabetes decreases. Hypoadiponectinemia, caused by interactions of genetic factors such as
SNPs in the Adiponectin gene and environmental factors causing obesity,
appears to play an important causal role in insulin resistance, type 2
diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, which are linked to obesity. The
adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which mediate the antidiabetic
metabolic actions of adiponectin, have been cloned and are downregulated
in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Upregulation of adiponectin is a
partial cause of the insulin-sensitizing and antidiabetic actions of
A Polish study focusing on the protein adiponectin was led by Agnieszka Baranowska-Bik from the Medical Center of Postgraduate Education in Warsaw. The study involved 133 women aged 20 to 102, including 25 centenarians who were found to be healthier in some respects than younger obese participants. The oldest women had significantly higher levels of adiponectin in their blood stream than the other age groups. Compared to a group of obese women, the centenarians displayed fewer signs of high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome, which involves obesity, insulin resistance (for which higher levels of insulin are needed to perform the hormone's regular functions), diabetes and the formation of fatty deposits.
Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-specific secretory protein known to be an insulin-sensitizing protein. Serum adiponectin is important to maintaining energy homeostasis under energy shortage conditions, such as during female pubertal development.
Diet role and influence
Those who follow a Mediterranean diet which includes nuts, whole grains and a small amount of alcohol have higher adiponectin levels. Decreasing omega 6 fatty acids and increasing omega-3 fatty acids in the diet leads to higher adinopectin levels.
Nutritional intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio increases
adiponectin concentration and fatty acid oxidation in healthy subjects.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007.
The Western diet is characterized by a low n-3 PUFA intake and an imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. This study lasted for 10 weeks and included 17 healthy subjects. Dietary counseling was provided for these volunteers to increase their omega-3 intake and decrease their omega-6 intake. Dietary intervention was associated with significant reductions in TNF-alpha, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased adiponectin.
Adiponectin and pioglitazone
Treatment with pioglitazone appears to increase levels of adiponectin in plasma and to decrease the lipid-necrotic component, which may lead to stabilization of coronary plaques, researchers said here at the American Heart Association 2006 Scientific Sessions. In a 6-month treatment period, the necrotic-core components of plaques decreased when patients were taking the anti-diabetes drug pioglitazone (Actos), said study investigator Daisuke Ogasawara, MD, cardiology researcher, Kobe University Graduate Medical School, Kobe, Japan.
Q. Do fish oils or omega-3 fatty acids influence levels of adinopectin?
A. In one study, Dietary n–3 fatty acids consumed at levels of 3% of energy intake did not significantly increase plasma or adiponectin concentrations in overweight-to-moderately obese healthy men and women over the course of 14 weeks. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, February 2008.
Q. I have
heard quite alot about the beneficial effects of adinopectin on type 2
diabetes. Are you aware of any similar benefits to those suffering from
fatty liver (alcoholic and non alcoholic)? If so, does Diet Rx formula
provide sufficient levels of adiponectin to alleviate the same?
A. Adiponectin is a hormone not available as a supplement. Diet Rx reduces appetite, and when less food is consumed this provides quite a number of health benefits. We have not tested adiponectin levels in those who take Diet Rx.
pleasure to have a connection with you. I am a PhD student of Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University Hyderabad, India. My thesis is about "production of
recombinant globular adiponectin in plants" and I am researching on this
subject. If you kindly answer some my questions. Is used recombinant adiponectin
to produce any pharmaceuticals until now? And what clinical trial step of
adiponectin is done now?
This is not an area that I am up to date with since I focus on natural supplements research.
thought this adiponectin study might interest you folks.
Atzmon G, Pollin TI, Crandall J, Tanner K, Schechter CB, Scherer PE. Institute for Aging Research, Belfer Bldg. #701, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.
Although caloric restriction in numerous models extends life, longevity in humans is suggested to be limited by the increased prevalence of obesity. Adiponectin, a fat-derived peptide, has a protective role against age-related disease, and thus is an excellent candidate gene for longevity. We studied adiponectin levels in centenarians (n = 118), their offspring (n = 228), and unrelated participants <95 (n = 78). Adiponectin levels were significantly greater in participants older than 95 years, an effect that was independent of sex and body mass index (BMI). Adiponectin levels in the offspring were higher (following adjustment for age, sex, and BMI) compared to controls, suggesting that inherited factors play a role in determining adiponectin levels. Over-representation of two common variants in Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) in male long-lived individuals combined with their independent association with elevated plasma adiponectin levels (in men and women) suggests that their presence may promote increased life span through the regulation of adiponectin production and/or secretion.
Q. I work for a Japanese supplement manufacturer called Anzu Klimers Corporation and I was wondering if it would be possible to do a review of our supplement, ADIPOLIC. As you know, adiponectin, which is a protein hormone, is said to be connected to a variety of diseases, including diabetes. The main reason for creating ADIPOLIC was to create a supplement that helps to increase the amount of adiponectin in the body, hence creating a healthier body. Would it be possible to do a review of our product in the Supplement Research Update? We have done clinical tests here in Japan and are interested in getting clinical trials done in America.
A. Once studies are published in peer-reviewed journals, we would be glad to review those studies.