What is your general recommendation concerning alcohol
consumption (i.e. standard drinks per day or week for women and men)?
It's difficult to know exactly how much alcohol and in what form is ideal since it varies among individuals, but one or two ounces of wine or a few ounces of beer a day is more likely to be helpful than harmful. Timing makes a difference, too. If you drink right before bed and that helps you sleep better, the benefits are enhanced. But if you drink right before bed and it disturbs your sleep, then any benefits of the alcohol are reversed by the sleep disturbance. Bottom line, the benefits of such consumption and the amount varies among individuals, by the type of alcohol, ie, beer, wine, liquor, by the amount, and the time of day of consumption. The moderate consumption of alcohol does not destroy brain cells. Mild consumption of red wine could be beneficial to health due to resveratrol and polyphenols.
Misuse or abuse
Nearly one-third of Americans have had problems with alcohol abuse and dependence in their lifetimes. Excessive drinking is a major economic problem in the United States, costing billions of dollars in health care costs, lost worker productivity and other consequences involved such as family disputes.
Natural Alcohol excess use treatment
Some people consider asparagus extract to be helpful in preventing hangovers, but more studies are needed.
Kudzu may be helpful in reducing alcohol abuse or alcohol addiction.
An Extract of the Chinese Herbal Root Kudzu Reduces Alcohol Drinking by Heavy Drinkers in a Naturalistic Setting.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005.
Of the available medications for treating alcohol -related problems, none are universally effective, and all have side effects that may limit their use. Extracts of kudzu containing a variety of isoflavones have been shown to reduce alcohol drinking in rats and hamsters. Our data suggest that an extract of kudzu plant may be a useful adjunct in reducing alcohol intake in a naturalistic setting.
SAM-e may help certain individuals who drink alcohol due to depression to reduce their intake. We received this email in 2008
I have been taking SAM-e pills for approximately three weeks and have had no urges to gamble or drink alcohol. I am a recovering compulsive gambler and alcoholic and have had recent bouts with depression. My counselor thought that giving Sam-e pills a try would help, as she found it to help other gamblers and alcoholics such as myself. It is a blessing for me, as I can focus more clearly on rational thinking day to day instead of the delusional thoughts that compulsive gambling had led me to believe. I will not admit that I am cured but the relief I am experiencing has been amazing to say the least! My dosage of SAM-e was 400mg for the first week, but I have cut back to 200mg at the current time, on the suggestion of my counselor, when I told her I literally felt "drugged" during the course of daily activities. I was able to focus on tasks at hand without being sidetracked by thoughts of gambling. It was like my brain had been filled with a euphoric high, much like the times when I would gamble at the race track. I would become very fatigued after dinner around 6:30pm and sometimes fall asleep and not wake up until my wife came to bed. I also had a "freeze frame" type of vision a couple times while driving when looking left to right. Since cutting back on the dosage, I have not experienced either of these effects. I have also had a little more anxiety than normal (this was an everyday occurrence before starting the medication) as well as some increased irritability. These effects still continue. For the most part, as I have expressed, the desire to gamble or drink alcohol has been minimal. I am able to focus on important aspects in life again and the reality of the negative effects of gambling on my relationships and financial future is finally hitting home. Thank you for your time and interest, I hope I can be of help to others.
Lithium orotate for alcohol cessation.
Phenibut has been studied.
Effects of alcohol
In low doses, drinking alcohol leads to a relaxing effect, lowered inhibition, impaired concentration, slow reflexes and reduced coordination. In medium doses, drinking alcohol produces slurred speech and drowsiness. When the blood alcohol level reaches very high, symptoms of alcohol excess include breathing difficulties, vomiting, and stupor. Experiments with mice show that drinking low to moderate amounts of alcohol -- but not high amounts -- releases pain-killing feel-good substances in the brain called endorphins.
People who drink moderate amounts of alcohol have better health on average than those who are teetotalers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010.
Chronic effects of drinking
Alcohol affects many organ systems of the body, but perhaps most notably affected are the central nervous system and the liver. Almost all ingested alcohol is metabolized in the liver and excessive alcohol use can lead to acute and chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis resulting from alcohol abuse is one of the ten leading causes of death in the United States. Long term alcohol addiction can cause a myriad of health problems. Nerves can be damaged leading to neuropathy.
The number of middle-aged men with chronic use of alcohol and resulting death in England has more than doubled since 1991. Men aged between 35 and 54 have suffered the biggest rise in alcohol-related deaths. Deaths among women in the same age group also nearly doubled, fuelling concerns over binge-drinking and rising alcohol consumption.
Brittle bones are a known consequence of alcoholism. Even young men who abuse alcohol are at risk of developing low bone mass.
Effect on dementia
While some research has suggested that light drinking may do the aging brain good, a new study finds that older adults who drink moderately may be no more or no less likely than abstainers to develop severe cognitive impairment or dementia. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2010.
Drinking alcohol and depression can be related
For people who have been alcohol dependent for a long time, alcohol can have a toxic effect on their neurotransmitters, but that does not necessarily lead to depression or anxiety. Alcohol feeds depressive symptoms, increasing both their frequency and severity. Not all heavy or long time drinkers will become depressed. Depression can lead to alcohol abuse, while alcohol misuse can in some cases lead to depression which in this case alcohol rehab at an alcohol treatment center is an option if the depression is severe. Alcohol can briefly produce a pleasant and relaxed state of the mind.
Moderate drinking may lengthen your life, while too much may shorten it. Drinking a moderate amount of alcohol -- up to three drinks per day in men and two drinks per day in women -- reduces the risk of death. The manner in which alcohol is consumed also appears to be important. Little amounts, preferably during meals, appears to be the right way (to drink alcohol). This is another feature of the Mediterranean diet, where alcohol, wine above all, is the ideal partner of a dinner or lunch. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2006.
What is your general recommendation concerning alcohol
consumption (i.e. standard drinks per day or week for women and men)?
It's difficult to know exactly how much alcohol and in what form is ideal since it varies among individuals, but one or two ounces of alcohol a day is more likely to be helpful than harmful. Timing makes a difference, too. If you drink right before bed and that helps you sleep better, the benefits are enhanced. But if you drink right before bed and it disturbs your sleep, then any benefits of the alcohol are reversed by the sleep disturbance. Bottom line, the benefits of such consumption and the amount varies among individuals and the time of day of consumption.
People who drink small amounts of alcohol regularly are less likely to be obese than people who do not drink at all. Consuming no more than a drink or two a few times a week reduces the risk of being obese. Consuming four or more drinks per day, however, increases the risk of being obese by 50%.
Moderate alcohol use may reduce the risk for stroke.
Excessive drinking raises the risk of cancer of the mouth, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon and breast. It may also be linked with cancer of the pancreas and lung. Alcohol is underestimated as a cause of cancer in many parts of the world. A sizeable proportion of cancer today is due to alcohol intake and this is increasing in many regions, particularly in east Asia and eastern Europe. The more alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of developing cancer.
Chronic and excessive alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of a variety of cancers (e.g., oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, liver, lung, colorectal, and breast). Retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives) are known to exert profound effects on cellular growth, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. Lower hepatic vitamin A levels have been well documented in alcoholics. Substantial research has been done, investigating the mechanisms by which excessive alcohol interferes with retinoid metabolism. More specifically, (1) alcohol acts as a competitive inhibitor of vitamin A oxidation to retinoic acid involving alcohol dehydrogenases and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases; (2) alcohol-induced cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP), particularly CYP2E1, enhance catabolism of vitamin A and retinoic acid; and (3) alcohol alters retinoid homeostasis by increasing vitamin A mobilization from liver to extrahepatic tissues. As a consequence, long-term and excessive alcohol intake results in impaired status of retinoic acid, the most active derivative of vitamin A and a ligand for both retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors.
An international team of researchers reports that 3.6 percent of all cancer cases worldwide are related to alcohol drinking. A causal link has been established between alcohol drinking and cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, colon, rectum, liver, larynx, and breast.
Light to moderate drinking reduces the risk of heart disease but the beneficial effects of alcohol seem to work differently in men and women. For men alcohol drinking daily seems to have the biggest positive effect on health while in women the amount of alcohol consumed may have more of an impact. The beneficial effects of moderate drinking in cutting heart disease risk are well documented but they warned that heavy alcohol consumption is linked to liver diseases, cancer and road accidents. Most of the research into alcohol and heart disease has been done on men. Little is known about the impact on women. Researchers studied the effects of alcohol on more than 50,000 men and women over more than five years. Men in the study who drank one day a week had a 7 percent reduced risk of heart disease compared to non-drinkers, but daily moderate drinkers were 41 percent less likely to suffer from heart disease. Women consumed an average of 5.5 alcoholic drinks a week, about half of what the men drank. But in women the percentages of reduced risk were similar, regardless of whether they drank one day or seven days a week.
Older adults who have up to one drink a day may live longer and suffer fewer heart problems than teetotalers do. Modest alcohol intake appears to benefit the cardiovascular system.
One or two alcoholic drinks a day can help healthy people-and heart patients-live longer. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, March 30, 2010.
Drinking alcohol, even a small amount, may trigger recurrent painful bouts of gout. The gout-triggering effect of alcohol "occurs within a short period of time, perhaps less than 24 hours.
Alcohol and brain tissue
Excessive intake can damage brain cells but the brain can repair some of the harm. However, alcoholics should get sober as quickly as possible because the longer they continue to drink alcohol heavily, the less likely their brains will be able to regenerate.
Smoking and Alcohol
For alcoholics whose drinking brings on cognitive deficits, smoking seems to retard their cognitive recovery when they go on the wagon. Long-term chronic alcohol drinking of the amount that alcoholics do leads to abnormalities of brain structure, chemistry, and blood flow as well as cognition. Alcoholics may appear to be functioning normally, but cognitive tests will usually reveal abnormalities. So it stands to reason that diminished cognition should reverse itself when alcoholics stop drinking alcohol. But cognitive recovery can be retarded by cigarette smoking, at least during the first month of abstinence from alcohol. Smoking appears to interfere with metabolic brain recovery and cognitive improvement.
Alcohol withdrawal is a set of symptoms that occur with the elimination of alcohol when a person is psychologically and/or physiologically addicted to it. A majority of people who have been drinking alcohol and decide to stop (often for health-related reasons) are able to do so without much trouble. Alcohol withdrawal typically becomes difficult only when problem drinkers—alcoholics—attempt to quit. Almost inevitably, alcoholics need help in achieving this goal. Sometimes, this help requires medical intervention in detoxification centers.
Alcohol can alter blood sugar levels and exacerbate or cause diabetes; interfere with reproductive functions; and interfere with calcium metabolism and bone structure, increasing the risk of osteoporosis. On the other hand, hormones also may affect alcohol consumption by influencing alcohol-seeking behavior.
Although genetic and environmental factors are key in the risk of developing alcoholism, the roots of problem drinking seem to be different for women and men. For both sexes, problems with aggressive behavior in childhood -- including conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder -- signal a heightened risk of alcoholism. However, for women, childhood stress in general appears to contribute to alcoholism risk, and women with a nervous, anxious personality are more likely to have an alcohol problem than those with a more balanced temperament.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a drug, Vivitrol, an injectable form of naltrexone administered monthly to help control cravings for alcohol. Vivitrol is made by lkermes Inc. and Cephalon Inc. The once-a-month treatment provides an alternative to existing oral medications that must be taken daily, freeing patients battling alcoholism from having to make a decision each day to take medicine. The pill versions are sold generically and under the brand name ReVia by Barr Pharmaceuticals Inc. Alkermes and Cephalon say Vivitrol is available in the form of a single dose, 380-milligram intramuscular injection.
Alcohol Cessation and withdrawal treatment
Acamprosate (Campral delayed-release tablet), a synthetic compound with a similar structure to that of the neurotransmitter GABA and the neuromodulator taurine, facilitates the maintenance of abstinence in detoxified alcohol -dependent patients.
Dr Olivier Ameisen in his book, Le Dernier Verre [The Last Glass], claims that baclofen, a drug known as a treatment for muscle spasms, especially among sufferers of cystic fibrosis, may be used to ease an intolerable craving for alcohol. It is so effective, he claims, that alcoholics can go back to social drinking without fear of renewed dependency.
Alcohol withdrawal treatment naturally
Coll Antropol. 2011. The use of a food supplementation with D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine and L-5-hydroxytriptophan in the alleviation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
Since abstinence from ethanol causes a hypodopaminergic and a hypoopioidergic environment in the reword system circuits, manifesting with withdrawal symptoms, food supplements that contains D-phenylalanine a peptidase inhibitor (of opioide inactivation) and L-amino-acids (for dopamine synthesis) were used to replenish a lack in neurotransmitters and alleviate the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. 20 patients suffering from alcohol addictions starting a detoxification therapy have been included in a prospective, randomized, double blind study. The patients have been randomly devided in two groups. One group recieved for a period of 40 days a food supplement containing D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine and L-5-hydroxytriptophan (investigation group), and the control (placebo) group. On the first day of hospitalization the patients performed a SCL-90-R test, and blood samples were taken for measuring liver enzymes, total bilirubin, unbound cortisol and lymphocyte populations. The same was done on the 40th day of hospitalization. During the therapy a significant decrease in SCL-90-R psychiatric symptoms scores and a significant increase in CD4 lymphocyte count was observed in the investigation group. The cortisol values were significantly, but equally decreased in both groups, the same was with the liver enzymes and the total bilirubin values. We conclude that abstinence causes a major stress for the patients. The use of food supplement containing D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine and L-5-hydroxytriptophan alleviates the withdrawal symptoms and causes a rise in CD4 lymphocyte population, but it dose not affect the serum cortisol levels, which are probably more affected by liver inflammation and the liver restitution.
Q. I read an article regarding the role of baclofen as
a treatment for alcohol excess. know SAM-e supplement has given me good results.
Would Kudzu be worth taking as well as SAM-e supplement is a lot more expensive.
Also is there a similar natural product to the baclofen drug described in
newspaper articles? Thanks, keep up the good work.
A. I think it is worthwhile to try SAM-e supplement by itself for a couple of weeks, then to take a break for a couple of days and to try kudzu for a couple of weeks. It may take trial and error to find the right medicine or supplement and the right dosage.
Red Bull, Energy Drinks, and
People who mix energy drinks with alcohol may feel more sober than they truly are. In experiments with young male volunteers, researchers found that the men were no less impaired when they drank a mix of alcohol and the energy drink Red Bull than when they drank a standard mixed drink. Drinkers did, however, seem to think they were less drunk -- reporting less fatigue, fewer headache symptoms and better coordination. There's a popular, though unproven, belief that mixing energy drinks with alcohol can counter some of the effects of drinking. The danger lies in these alcohol and energy fluid drinkers thinking that they can function well and drive but then realize too late they are impaired, after a car crash or other serious incident.
Avoid Excess use during airplane flights
Cramped conditions on aircraft can increase the odds of developing potentially fatal blood clots. Travelers should avoid taking sedatives or drinking too much alcohol during flights to reduce the risk of DVT.
use with natural supplements questions
Q. Is it okay to take supplements such as ashwagandha herb, acetylcarnitine brain booster, lipoic acid, kava herb, vinpocetine herbal extract, arginine, and coQ10 the same day as a drink or two of alcohol from wine or beer? And what about Passion Rx?
A. I don't foresee any problems as long as the dosages of these supplements are kept low. The ones I would be cautious about is vinpocetine since it can cause lightheadedness, and kava which can cause sedation. I suggest no more than one or two ounces when Passion Rx is taken that day.
Q. I take
5-htp in the evening
sometimes for sleep. Is one wine alcohol drink okay?
A. A small glass is wine is fine, but avoid drinking a lot of alcohol while taking 5-htp.
Amaretto, almond flavor
Absinthe In 1915 the French outlawed this wormwood-flavored liqueur 1st made commercially by Pernod in 1797
Amaretto Almond-flavored liqueur whose name comes from the Italian for "bitter," not the Italian for "love"
B&B, benedictine and brandy
Mint julep is traditionally made with four ingredients: mint leaf, bourbon, sugar, and water. It's said Jefferson Davis used to lace this bourbon drink with a tablespoonful of French brandy, It's usually made with bourbon, sugar, mint, and crushed ice. Federal regulations say it must be distilled from a mash of not less than 51% corn
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine. Brandy generally contains 35–60% alcohol by volume and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink.
Applejack This brandy made from hard cider was called Jersey lightning in Colonial times
Framboise A French raspberry brandy
Slivovitz is a brandy made from plum
Champagne Names of
various champagne bottles larger than a magnum are taken from Bible
Cristal is the brand name of a Champagne produced by Louis Roederer.
Korbel, Cook's & Piper-Heidsieck are champagne brands
Chartreuse by Carthusian monks
Cognac - named after the town of Cognac in France, it is a variety of brandy, it must be made from specified grapes, of which Ugni Blanc is the one most widely used.
Creme de menthe used in green fuzz and green back
Frangelico This hazelnut liqueur was named for the mysterious monk who made it 300 years ago
Gin - , originally juniper berry medicine used by Dutch, cocktails with London in their names are made from gin
Beefeaters been guarding British royalty since 1485 & gin bottles since 1820, It puts the fizz in a gin fizz Club soda or Soda water
Tanqueray A guy with this last name began distilling London dry gin in 1830
Grand Marnier The label of this liqueur indicates it's "made with orange & fine old cognac brandy"
Kummel is one of these flavored with caraway seeds, Liqueur
Mead made from fermented honey
Neat means without ice or water and in an old-fashioned glass. It is used when ordering a liquor by itself.
Ouzo is an anise-flavored aperitif that is widely consumed in Greece and Cyprus,
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation. Caramel is added to make the darker varieties of this liquor made from molasses
Bacardi, America's single best-selling brand of liquor, Legend says bats lived in a shed at its rum distillery and one of them is still on its labels
Blackstrap A favorite drink in colonial New England was "Blackstrap", a mixture of molasses & this potent potable
Mojito is a cocktail that consists of five ingredients: white rum, sugar (traditionally sugar cane juice), lime juice, sparkling water and mint.
Tia Maria This rum-based Jamaican liqueur gets its flavor from Blue Mountain coffee
Zombie One story says this rum drink made the 1st man who drank it feel
"like the living dead"
Sangria is a wine punch typical of Spain and Portugal. It normally consists of wine, chopped fruit, a sweetener, and a small amount of added brandy.
Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the town of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain. If Edgar Allan Poe had tapped "The Cask of Amontillado", he'd have had this kind of wine
Spritzer is a tall, chilled drink, usually made with white wine and seltzer or club soda.
Tequila Mexican law says that this must be made with at least 51% blue agave
Tia Maria is a coffee liquer, The recipe for Tia Maria came from Jamaica island and "has been closely guarded for generations"
Vermouth Containing a mixture of about 40 herbs, this aromatized wine is used in martinis
Whiskey - barley grain is the main ingredient of both Irish & Scotch whiskey. Today all brands of Irish whiskey except Bushmills are made in Midleton near Cork
Bourbon is a type of American whiskey – a barrel-aged distilled spirit made primarily from corn. Old Rip Van Winkle is among the fine brands of bourbon whiskey type made in Kentucky.
Bushmill's & Tullamore Dew come from Ireland, Called "The world's oldest whiskey distillery," it's in County Antrim, Ireland. Antrim in Ireland
Club is a brand of whisky from Canada.
Jack Daniel's is a brand of sour mash Tennessee whiskey that is the highest selling American whiskey in the world.
cocktail made of Scotch whisky, sugar, & bitters:
Maker’s Mark is a small-batch bourbon whisky that is distilled in Loretto, Kentucky, by Beam Inc. It is sold in distinctively squarish bottles, which are sealed with red wax, and bottled at 90 U.S. proof (45% alcohol by volume).
Scotch whiskey For 20 years Dewar scotch's ads have featured "Achievers" who tell "Why I Do What I Do" 1st made in Scotland in the 18th C., this liqueur blends old Scotch, honey, herbs & spices
Vodka Zubrowka is this type of potent potable flavored with buffalo grass
Wassail, spiced ale or other liquor
Mixed, cocktails Word that can precede dress, party & table
Bloody Mary is a popular cocktail containing vodka, tomato juice, and usually other spices or flavorings such as Worcestershire sauce, Tabasco sauce, piri piri sauce, beef consommé or bouillon, horseradish,
Bullshot Beef boullion & a shot of vodka are the main ingredients in this drink
Brandy Alexander is a sweet, brandy-based cocktail consisting of cognac and crème de cacao that became popular during the early 20th century. It is a variation of an earlier, gin-based cocktail called simply an Alexander.
Daiquiri has rum Whiskey sours and daiquiris are similar except that daiquiris contain rum instead of whiskey, You can add your favorite fruit to this rum & lime cocktail named for a district in Cuba
Gibson has onions, In 1978,someone ate almost 2 lbs. of pickled onions in 68 seconds without sipping a single Gibson
Gimlet All you need to make this simple cocktail is gin & sweetened lime juice, Trader Vic's Bartender's Guide says don't use bottled lime juice unless you're making this drin
Hurricane rum drink hailing from New Orleans' French Quarter has its own glass of the same name
Long Island Iced tea If you order this cold drink on "Long Island", you're apt to get 5 distilled spirits, not brewed leaves. To make it, combine gin, vodka, cola, and a twist of lemon, but not a drop of tea
Mai Tai, light and dark rum, Mai Tai is an alcoholic cocktail based on rum, Curaçao liqueur, and limejuice, associated with "Polynesian-style" settings. This fruit-garnished rum cocktail isn't indigenous to Hawaii but arrived there in 1953
Manhattan - Brooklynite Jennie Churchill, Winston's mother, created this whiskey & vermouth cocktail
Margarita is a Mexican cocktail consisting of tequila mixed with Cointreau or orange-flavoured liqueur and lime or lemon juice, served with salt
Martini, dry gin and vermouth
Mimosa, champagne, Often served at a brunch, it's made with equal amounts of champagne & orange juice
Pina colada is a sweet, rum-based cocktail made with rum, cream of coconut, and pineapple juice, served either blended or shaken with ice
Pink Lady This cocktail made with gin, grenadine & egg whites is shaken & strained before serving
Sangria Iced drink made of wine, soda water & fruit juice
Saratoga You're off to the races in Upstate N.Y. with this drink of ginger ale, sugar, bitters & lemon juice
Scarlett O'hara Bartenders know this juice puts the scarlet in a Scarlett O' Hara, cranberry
and orange juice
Shirley Temple is a non-alcoholic mixed drink made with ginger ale, and a splash of grenadine, garnished with a maraschino cherry.
Zombie, dark and light rum with any fruit juice
A Fifth is a bottle of liquor that holds 750 milliliters, A fifth equals about 1/5 of this Gallon
Aperitif From Latin "to open", it's a drink taken to open a meal, From the Latin for "openers", they include Campari & Dubonnet
Booze This 19th century Philadelphia distiller's name became slang for liquor
Carafe Perhaps from the Arabic for "drinking cup", it's used for serving wine in a restaurant
Cub soda added to a gin fizz to make it fizz
Dash Mixer's measure that can run about 1/32 of an ounce, not 100 yards
Dregs solid particles that tend to settle at the bottom of some liquids, such as wine or coffee
Fizz This word that follows golden, silver & gin in cocktail names refers to the addition of soda water
Grog It was the nickname of Admiral Edward Vernon, who had the rum ration watered down
Hooch The term "hooch" came from the Hoochinoo Indian tribe in Alaska, who made liquor
Jigger, a measure of alcoholic beverage ingredients, and the tool used to measure them, a shot, Traditionally, in England, 2 jiggers equal 1 jack, & 2 jacks one Jill
Punch A beverage
of fruit juices and sometimes a soft drink or carbonated water, often spiced and
mixed with a wine or liquor base.
Symposium in ancient greece "to drink together" was a drinking party.
Verner's soda Related to the banana, it's the spice featured in Vernor's soda, ginger
Varietal In the U.S., wines using at least 51% of a certain grape are labeled this