Beta Thalassemia treatment, herbal nutritional treatment
June 2 2016

Antioxidant benefit and treatment
Adv Clinical Chem. 2013. Protein antioxidants in thalassemia. Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  It is common knowledge that thalassemic patients are under significant oxidative stress. Chronic hemolysis, frequent blood transfusion, and increased intestinal absorption of iron are the main factors that result in iron overload with its subsequent pathophysiologic complications. Iron overload frequently associates with the generation of redox-reactive labile iron, which in turn promotes the production of other reactive oxygen species (ROS). If not neutralized, uncontrolled production of ROS often leads to damage of various intra- and extracellular components such as DNA, proteins, lipids, and small antioxidant molecules among others. A number of endogenous and exogenous defense mechanisms can neutralize and counteract the damaging effects of labile iron and the reactive substances associated with it. Endogenous antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and ferroxidase, may directly or sequentially terminate the activities of ROS. Nonenzymatic endogenous defense mechanisms include metal binding proteins (ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, albumin, and others) and endogenously produced free radical scavengers (glutathione (GSH), ubiquinols, and uric acid). Exogenous agents that are known to function as antioxidants (vitamins C and E, selenium, and zinc) are mostly diet-derived. In this review, we explore recent findings related to various antioxidative mechanisms operative in thalassemic patients with special emphasis on protein antioxidants.

Curcuminoids found in curcumin and turmeric
Improvement in oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in beta-thalassemia / Hb E patients treated with curcuminoids.
Clin Biochem. 2010; Kalpravidh RW, Siritanaratkul N, Insain P, Charoensakdi R, Hatairaktham S, Srichairatanakool S, Phisalaphong C, Rachmilewitz E, Fucharoen S. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
To evaluate the hematological profile, oxidative stress, and antioxidant parameters in beta-thalassemia / Hb E patients treated with curcuminoids for 12 months. Twenty-one beta-thalassemia/Hb E patients were given 2 capsules of 250 mg each of curcuminoids (a total of 500 mg) daily for 12 months. Blood was collected every 2 months during treatment and 3 months after withdrawal and was determined for complete blood count, malonyldialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), reduced glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells (RBC), and non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) in serum. The increased oxidative stress in beta-thalassemia/Hb E patients was shown by higher levels of MDA, SOD, GSH-Px in RBC, serum NTBI, and lower level of RBC GSH. Curcuminoids administration resulted in improvement of all the measured parameters as long as they were administered. After 3 months withdrawal of treatment, all parameters returned close to baseline levels. Curcuminoids may be used to ameliorate oxidative damage in patients with beta-thalassemia / Hb E disease.

Complications
Patients with β-thalassemia major and mainly intermedia have an increased risk for developing venous and arterial thrombosis which may be related to circulating pathological red blood cells (RBC) and continuous platelet activation.