Calorie count and restriction
June 15 2016 by Ray Sahelian, M.D.

Calorie is a French word and indicates the amount of food energy. A calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade. Each gram of carbohydrate and protein has four calories while each gram of fat has about nine calories. Many people are surprised how much activity it takes to burn the calories ingested in foods, especially dense foods.
   Highly processed foods account for more than 60 percent of the calories in products Americans routinely buy in grocery stores.

Calorie retention, not calorie intake, related to cancer risk
Animal experiments indicate that excess calorie retention, not excess calorie intake, increases the risk of cancer. Dr. Tim R. Nagy from the University of Alabama at Birmingham used a mouse model of prostate cancer to investigate whether body mass and/or composition have an important effect on cancer risk, which is independent of energy intake. The researchers did not look at what was eaten,  but was about separating the effects of food intake versus body composition on cancer risk. In the first experiment, all of the mice ate similar amounts of food. The mice exposed to higher temperatures consumed less food but had greater body mass than mice exposed to colder temperatures.
   These heavier mice had higher leptin levels and lower adiponectin levels, both associated with appetite, and develop more advanced prostate cancer, but showed no difference in metastases. In a second experiment, when mice were allowed to eat as much as they wanted, those exposed to lower temperatures ate about 30 percent more food, but still weighed less than mice exposed to higher temperatures. There was no difference in cancer progression or metastasis between these groups. The results show that slower cancer progression and initiation and in the mouse prostate is not attributable to the calories intake and may instead be mediated by changes in energy balance, body weight, and adiposity. "We are interested in determining whether we can induce similar benefits using exercise instead of temperature," Dr. Tim Nagy said. "That is, clamp calorie intake and have a sedentary group and an exercise group, thereby creating fat and lean mice, respectively, to determine if we can limit cancer progression in a similar manner as we have shown in the current paper." Cancer Research, 2007.

Low calorie diet
The best way to lose weight is to eat a low calorie diet and engage in at least an hour of physical activity a day in order to burn calories. Use stevia, the natural no calorie sweetener, instead of sugar.

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

Counting calorie - what is a calorie?
A calorie is a measure of potential energy in food. One calorie is the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.

Calorie burned - burning
How many calories does a person have to burn to lose a pound?
   About 3,500 calories. If you want to lose a pound you can eat 100 fewer calories a day for 35 days, or 500 fewer calories for seven days, or burn calories by walking an hour a day for 22 days, or do a combination of the two by eating less and moving more.

Calorie in alcohol
On average, there is usually about 30 to 50 calories in 100 ml of beer and about 70 calories in 100 ml of wine.

Soda calorie
In mealtime tests with 33 adults, researchers at Pennsylvania State University found that diners ate as much food when they were given a sugary soft drink as they did when they drank water or diet soda. As a result, their calorie count jumped when they had the sugar-sweetened drink. On average, volunteers consumed 128 calories from a "small" 12-ounce soda and 151 calories from an 18-ounce portion. People looking to cut calories should first keep a record of their diet for a few days, then see where they can trim beverage calories. Cutting out calories from beverages can be easier than eating less of your favorite foods. Water and diet soft drinks are some calorie-free options, but people can also reduce calories by adding water to their juice for a "spritzer," or simply having a small soda instead of a large soda. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006.

Calorie restriction
Much research interest of late has gone toward the possible benefits of calorie restriction, in which calories are limited but not to the point of malnutrition. Calorie reduction has been shown to extend the lifespan, with studies demonstrating the phenomenon in species ranging from yeast to fish to some mammals.

Calorie restriction leads to a decrease in levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation linked to heart disease. Reduced insulin resistance, a risk factor for diabetes, is also seen with reduction of food intake. Levels of a marker of thyroid activity also fall. Some studies have suggested that lower thyroid activity may be associated with longer life span.