Cancer supplements, herbs, vitamins, diet and foods - Natural and alternative ways to prevent and treat, or to slow down its progression by Ray Sahelian, M.D.
March 16 2014

Breast and prostate cancer head the list of the most common cancers, regardless of race, among American men and women. Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the US and the American Cancer Society estimates that in 2012, approximately 1.4 million Americans received a new diagnosis and over half-a-million Americans died of the disease. Those who are tall are more likely to get this disease which may account why men have a slightly higher incidence, particularly of kidney, melanoma, and hematological malignancies.

Each day, your immune system spots and destroys cells that could easily go on to become cancerous, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, news release, Feb. 2, 2014.

Anti cancer diet and foods
There are a variety of ways foods can prevent, slow down, or fight this disease.
Genetic differences in taste preference, food tolerance, and nutrient absorption and metabolism all influence the effect of diet on cancer risk. Some foods block natural bodily processes such as inflammation that stimulated cancer growth. Other foods influence cancer cells to die through a process called apoptosis. Still other foods help the body in detoxifying cancer-causing toxins or protecting against free radicals. Colorful vegetables and herbs are at the top of the list of anti cancer foods. Colorful berries are also excellent. Some of the most promising dietary chemopreventive agents are green tea polyphenols (i.e. catechins), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, glucosinolates / isothiocyanates, vitamins (i.e. vitamin D and folate).

Reduce your risk naturally
Eat a healthy diet with few processed foods, and more vegetables, preferably organic. Reduce the amount of food cooked at very high temperatures. Try to maintain an appropriate body weight, losing excess pounds can reduce your risk. Many vegetables have anti-tumor activity, for instance broccoli, cauliflower and watercress.
Try to get a deep sleep at night
Of course, reduce or eliminate smoking and excessive drinking.
Minimize exposure to toxins.
Walk your way to wellness - By keeping your body healthy and active, walking can help you improve your mood, boost your energy, lose weight, control your blood pressure, prevent bone loss, and decrease the risks of many diseases, including cancer.
Everyone needs fats. Problems arise only when we get too much fat, or the wrong types of fat, such as trans fats and hydrogenated fats, and excess fat from dairy products and meats. Fat has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease as well as an increased exposure to certain forms of cancer.
Avoid eating too much sugar, substitute stevia, the no calorie natural sweetener, instead.
Weigh less, live longer - Being overweight seems to play a role in cancers of the breast, colon and the lining of the uterus. Cancers of the prostate occur more often in obese men and cancers of the gall bladder, bile passages and ovaries occur more often in obese women. Fasting may reduce cancer rates according to one animal study.
Seek shade, not sun - A tan is a sign of skin damage! It is a scientific fact that overexposure to the sun damages skin, causing cumulative, permanent harm, including (but not limited to) skin cancer.
Finding Fiber - Research has shown that eating more foods containing fiber can lower your risk of two fairly common, potentially fatal cancers: colon and prostate cancer. Because foods with fiber are naturally low in fat, they also protect you against other types of cancer to which a high-fat diet may contribute.
Drink tea rather than sodas or sugared drinks - Solid evidence is mounting that drinking tea can prevent cell damage that leads to cancer, heart disease and perhaps other ills. Tea is loaded with phytochemicals--a wide range of molecules that can act as antioxidants. Such compounds counteract the damage done to DNA cells by free radicals--charged particles produced by sunlight, chemicals, many foods and simply the stress of day-to-day living.

Natural cancer treatments worth trying
Yoga, hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback, imagery, and support groups can help ease the anxiety and post-chemo or radiation treatment consequences. Different vitamins and other micronutrients in vegetables, fruits, and other natural plant products may prevent cancer development (carcinogenesis) by interfering with detrimental actions of mutagens, carcinogens, and tumor promoters. There's a lot of controversy surrounding alternative treatments, and more research is needed before we have more confidence in these approaches.

Cancer supplements, herbs, vitamins,  plant extracts with potential anti cancer activity
There are countless herbs that have been found to have anti-tumor activity in laboratory studies. Whether these herbs and dietary supplement have a role to play in cancer treatment or prevention in humans is not clear at this time. Even if they do, the appropriate dosage and best way to use them is not well known. However, if your doctor approves, you could try some of these herbal and nutritional supplements.
   There are numerous reports of cancer preventive activity of dietary botanicals, including cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli, allium vegetables such as garlic and onion, green tea, citrus fruits, soybeans, berries, and ginger, as well as medicinal plants. Several compounds, such as genistein (from soybeans), lycopene (from tomatoes), brassinin (from cruciferous vegetables), sulforaphane (from asparagus), indole-3-carbinol (from broccoli), and resveratrol (from grapes) are being tested.

Berries and berry extracts such as acai, black or red raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, noni, and wolfberry have numerous anticancer compounds.

Broccoli vegetable and broccoli sprout extract are excellent options.

Curcumin may help fight breast, colon, and prostate cancer. Researchers have found in the lab that curcumin can enhance the cancer-fighting power of treatment with TRAIL, a naturally occurring molecule that helps kill cancer cells. TRAIL stands for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. In an experiment with human prostate cancer cells in a laboratory dish, the combination treatment killed off two to three times more cells than either treatment alone. Curcumin exerts multiple different suppressive effects on human breast carcinoma cells in vitro.

Carotenoids show a prominent role in decreasing the incidence of various cancers.

Vitamin D has an important role to play in prevention. Cancer rates are different at different latitudes of the globe. Rates of breast, colon and ovarian cancer are lower in sunnier regions of the world than in Northern climates where cold winters limit people's sun exposure. Sunlight triggers the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin, and people who get little sun exposure tend to have lower stores of the vitamin. More than three-fourths of people with a variety of cancers have low levels of vitamin D, and the lowest levels are associated with more advanced cancers

Green Tea has polyphenolic compounds such as EGCG that are protective against various forms of cancer.

Graviola fruit, also known as soursop, grows in the Amazon jungle and some of the Caribbean islands. See graviola cancer latest research, a web site that is updated regularly.

AHCC -- Active Hexose-correlated Compound -- is a mushroom extract that has been tested as an immune enhancing, liver protective and anti-cancer agent.


Ashwagandha has many compounds that have been found to have activity against lung, colon, breast, and central nervous system tumors.

Calcium D Glucarate is a natural supplement.

Cat's Claw extracts exert a direct anti-proliferative activity on MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. See
Cats-Claw supplement for more information.

DIM-Diindolylmethane supplement is another good option. See current research on this supplement at diindolemethane dim web site with the latest studies.

Indole 3 Carbinol is available as a supplement. See Indole3Carbinol I3C  for more information.

Mangosteen has powerful xanthones. As of 2011, I am not aware of human studies with mangosteen in the prevention or treatment of cancer.

Milk thistle contains silymarin and other flavonoids that have been found to have anti-tumor action in bladder and prostate cancer cells.

Noni fruit juice contains a polysaccharide-rich substance called Noni-ppt with anti-tumor activity.

Reishi mushroom water soluble extracts inhibit colon tumors in mice. Reishi may be helpful in advanced-stage cancers and has shown activity against prostate cancer cells.

Agaricus mushroom has been studied as a mushroom extract cancer treatment.

Resveratrol shows promise in neuroblastoma and breast cancer.

Maitake mushroom is often used in Japan

Calcium mineral has been associated with a lower risk of colon cancer, so has vitamin D.

IP-6, Inositol hexaphosphate
, is a naturally polyphosphorylated carbohydrate found in beans, brown rice, corn, sesame seeds, wheat bran, and other high fiber foods. IP-6 has been reported to have in vivo and in vitro anticancer activity against numerous tumors, such as colon, prostate, breast, liver, chronic myeloid leukemia, and rhabdomyosarcomas. Significant human trials are lacking and hence we do not currently know whether taking IP-6 supplements is helpful in cancer prevention or therapy.

Melatonin, a pineal hormone, is a potent antioxidant and has been shown to inhibit estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells and augment the effectiveness of tamoxifen.

Supplements that may be helpful for those on chemotherapy:
Carnitine improves fatigue in those who are undergoing chemotherapy.
Glutamine supplementation can lessen loss of protein in the muscle and protect immune and gut-barrier function during radio-chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancer.
Glutamine supplement may also be helpful for mucositis induced by cancer treatment.
SAM-e may have a protective effect in cancer chemotherapy-induced liver toxicity, do not use more than 100 mg a day.

CoQ10
Improved survival in patients with end-stage cancer treated with coenzyme Q10 and other antioxidants: a pilot study.
J Int Med Res. 2010.
This pilot study evaluated the survival of patients with end-stage cancer who received supplements of coenzyme Q10 and a mixture of other antioxidants (e.g. vitamin C, selenium, folic acid and beta-carotene). During a period of 9 years, 41 patients who had end-stage cancer were included. Primary cancers were located in the breast, brain, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, colon, prostate, ovaries and skin. The median actual survival was 40% longer than the median predicted survival.

Additional Herbs and compounds
Celery seed extract
D Glucarate supplement

Indole-3-carbinol supplement
Mistletoe herb
Morinda citrifolia extract
S
ulforaphane, found in broccoli and Brussels sprouts, slows the growth of human breast cancer cells in the lab. It disrupts the action of protein 'microtubules' within the cells, which are vital for the success of cell division. It also has effects on detoxification enzymes that can defend against cancer-promoting substances.
Vitamin K supplement

Tongkat ali -- Beta-carboline alkaloids isolated from tongkat ali have demonstrated significant cytotoxicity against human lung cancer (A-549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. In plain English, this means that some compounds in this plant can kill cancer cells. The practical significance of this finding in humans is not clear at this time.

Supplements used for radiation therapy
Aloe vera gel may be helpful for skin damage as a consequence of radiation therapy.

Factors that cause cancer
Diet and speed of growth as a child are both significant causes of cancer, but many Americans still incorrectly believe that factors such as pesticides or pollution are bigger causes. Diets that have a high content of fruits, vegetables and whole grains and that go are low on red meats, dairy products and fats protect against heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Hormones that cause the body to grow quickly may be involved in some cancers. Tall people have a higher risk of cancer than shorter people. Breastfeeding reduces the risk of cancer for mother and child.
   Repeated CT scans increase the risk.
   Several studies, mostly involving Western populations, have found that cancer risk increases with height. Taller people are more likely to succumb to this disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2009.

What about high alkaline foods and water?
   The kidneys and lungs can easily make the blood the normal pH necessary for proper body functioning even if high alkaline foods or water are consumed.

Role of alcohol
Men who drink beer or liquor on a regular basis have a higher risk of several different types of cancer. Among 3,600 Canadian men ages 35 to 70, those who averaged at least a drink per day had higher risks of a number of cancers than men who drank occasionally or not at all -- including cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, lungs, pancreas, liver and prostate. When the researchers looked at individual types of alcohol, though, only beer and "spirits" -- and not wine -- were linked to elevated cancer risks. Cancer Prevention and Detection 2009.

Exercise and physical activity
Exercise is particularly important for overweight survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers, because lifestyle factors can significantly affect their quality of life. Men who exercise hard are less likely to die from cancer. British Journal of Sports Medicine, July 2009.

Pollution and environmental exposure
To lessen cancer risks:
Remove shoes before entering the home to avoid tracking in toxic chemicals such as pesticides.
Filter tap water.
Use stainless steel, glass or BPA-free plastic water bottles.
Microwave in ceramic or glass instead of plastic containers.
Minimize consumption of food grown with pesticides and meat raised with antibiotics and growth hormone.
Minimize consumption of processed, charred or well-done meats, which contain carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.
Reduce radiation from X-rays and other medical sources.
Reduce your exposure to three dangerous chemicals: formaldehyde, benzene and radon. Almost all homes contain formaldehyde, considered a probable human carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency. Formaldehyde is used in plywood, particle board, foam insulation, carpet and draperies, furniture, permanent press fabrics and toiletries. Exposure is highest when these are newly installed. Many Americans are exposed to formaldehyde at work, raising their risk of dying from Hodgkin’s lymphoma and other cancers. Exposure to benzene is widespread. Exhaust from cars and other vehicles contain benzene, listed as a known human carcinogen by the EPA. Radon, which forms naturally and can collect in homes, is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, behind smoking.

Bladder cancer
This
is the fourth and eighth most common cancer in men and women in the United States, respectively. Flavonoid phytochemicals are being studied for both prevention and therapy of various human malignancies including bladder Cancer. One such naturally occurring flavonoid is silibinin isolated from milk thistle. Cigarette smoking is confirmed as a risk factor for bladder cancer.
   Green tea extract may interfere with a process that helps early bladder cancer to spread throughout the body. The findings, say researchers, bolster ongoing studies into green tea extract as a cancer treatment -- and may give green tea drinkers more reason to savor every cup. The investigators found that when they exposed human bladder cells to both a cancer-causing chemical and green tea extract, the extract interfered with a particular process by which early cancer cells become invasive and spread throughout body tissue. This process involves the "remodeling" of actin, a structural protein in cells that is essential for cell movement. Actin remodeling allows cancer cells to move and invade nearby healthy tissue. Based on the new findings, green tea extract may get in the way of this process by activating a protein known as Rho, which helps regulate actin's organization in cells and has been implicated in tumor development and progression.

Bone Cancer
Harvard University is investigating an allegation that a dentistry professor downplayed research showing an increased risk of bone cancer for boys who drink fluoridated tap water. Chester Douglass, who heads Harvard's Department of Oral Health Policy and Epidemiology, received a $1.3 million grant in 1992 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences to conduct a study of fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma, a rare form of bone cancer. Douglass' 1992-1999 study found that the odds of having osteosarcoma after drinking fluoridated water were "not statistically different" from those who drank non-fluoridated water. But Elise Bassin, a doctoral student who Douglass supervised, reported in her 2001 thesis that boys who drink fluoridated water appear to have an increased risk of developing the bone cancer. Her findings were based on some of the same people used in Douglass' study. The Environmental Working Group filed an ethics complaint against Douglass In June 2005 after discovering that Douglass cited Bassin's research in his final grant report. In it, he said her work supported his claim that there was no significant risk from fluoridated water, even though Bassin had found a strong link between fluoride levels in tap water and an increased osteosarcoma risk for boys. There appears to be a conflict of interest between Douglass' research and his position as editor-in-chief of The Colgate Oral Health Report, a quarterly newsletter funded by Colgate-Palmolive Co., which makes fluoridated toothpaste.

Brain
The number of brain tumor cases in the US and Europe has increased by up to 40% in the past 20 years. The incidence rate for brain tumors is increasing among people of all ages, but males between 20 and 40 years old are the most affected. The latest epidemiological studies indicate that white collar workers -- intellectuals and professionals -- are among the most affected. The reason is still unknown, though environmental causes such as cellular phones, computers and exposure to electromagnetic fields cannot be ruled out.
   Children fathered by men who have been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) apparently have increased odds of developing brain tumors.  Experimental evidence suggests that parental exposure to PAH, which occurs primarily through tobacco smoke, occupational exposure, and air pollution, could increase the risk of cancer during childhood.
   Resveratrol, found in red wine, shows promise for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
   In survivors of childhood cancer, exposure to radiation therapy, especially before 5 years of age, is the most important risk factor for the development of a new primary tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). The most common CNS tumors in these children are gliomas and meningiomas, which are primarily located in the brain but can occur elsewhere.
   Cell phone use may lead to an increased risk for brain cancer.
   Coffee and tea lovers may have a decreased likelihood of developing the most common form of malignant brain tumor in adults. A study of more than 500,000 European adults, add to evidence from a recent U.S. study linking higher coffee and tea intake to a lower risk of gliomas, a group of brain tumors that makes up about 80 percent of malignant brain cancers in adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, online September 15, 2010.

Breast Cancer -- for a fuller discussion, click the link below
Breast cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer-related deaths.
    A high-fiber low-fat diet reduces blood levels of estrogen in women with breast cancer, researchers report. This may help keep the disease in check, as breast cancers are sometimes driven by female hormones.
    Even moderate physical activity over the course of a lifetime can reduce a young woman's risk.
    Having breast cancer tissue sampled with a needle seems to increase the odds that disease will also be found in an armpit lymph node called the sentinel node, new research suggests. The spread of breast cancer to the sentinel node adversely affects a woman's survival and influences the treatment received. As reported in the Archives of Surgery, Dr. Nora M. Hansen of the John Wayne Cancer Institute at Saint John's Health Center, Santa Monica, California hypothesized that the method used to obtain specimens from the breast tumor might influence the spread of cancer to the sentinel node. To investigate, the researchers studied 663 women with proven breast cancer. Of the cancers, about half were biopsied with a needle, while the remainder involved actual removal of the tumor. Women who had a needle biopsy were about 50 percent more likely to have cancer in the sentinel node than women who underwent tumor removal. The researchers suggest that the increased risk of sentinel node disease may be "due in part to the mechanical disruption of the tumor by the needle," and they call for further studies to confirm these findings. Archives of Surgery, June 2004.
    A high-fiber low-fat diet reduces blood levels of estrogen in women with breast cancer. This may help keep the disease in check, as breast cancers are sometimes driven by female hormones.
    High-carb diets may increase more than just waistlines. New research suggests they might raise the risk of breast cancer.
    Genistein, which has weak estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties, may be one of the the components in the soy-based Asian diet that helps prevent breast cancer by its effects on biochemistry early in life. Reduced caloric consumption by Asians may be another reason for the lower rate of breast cancer.
    One test tube study indicates saw palmetto slows the growth of breast cancer cells.
    Consider the following supplements: Black Cohosh, Cat's Claw,  Curcumin, Green Tea, and Melatonin. You can read more about them by clicking on the links here or at the top of the page.


Cervical
Screening should begin within 3 years after a woman begins having vaginal intercourse, but no later than 21 years of age. If traditional Pap test results are obtained, screening should be done every year. If liquid-based Pap tests are used, screening should be done every 2 years. Many American women who have had a complete hysterectomy are having Pap smear screenings even though they are not at risk of cervical cancer.
   Women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) may reduce the odds that the virus will persist by increasing the amount of certain carotenoids-- plant compounds with antioxidant properties - in their diets. Specifically, the study found that increasing dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, and papaya appears to lower the risk of persistent HPV infection, a strong risk factor for cervical cancer.

Colon
Eating lots of preserved meats such as salami, bacon, cured ham and hot dogs could increase the risk of bowel cancer by 50 percent. Fiber found in vegetables, fruits, and whole grain cereals and legumes may reduce colon cancer risk. A daily calcium supplement protects against colon polyps, particularly the advanced type that go on to become cancer.
   Sigmoidoscopy is recommended every 5 years starting at age 50.
   Despite recent advances in screening and treatment for colon cancer, the number of people dying from the disease has remained steady since the late 1980s.
   Higher milk and calcium consumption is linked with reduced odds of developing colorectal cancer, according to an analysis of ten studies.       

Endometrial
Risk factors are unopposed estrogen therapy, late menopause, tamoxifen, nulliparity, infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, and obesity. Most endometrial cancers are diagnosed at an early stage when there is unexpected bleeding or spotting.
   Regular consumption of soy foods seems to reduce a woman's risk of getting cancer of the endometrium, the lining of the uterus, according to a study conducted in Shanghai. This benefit is most pronounced among overweight women. The estrogens women produce are known to play a key role in the development of endometrial cancer, the researchers note in this week's British Medical Journal. Soy foods contain isoflavones with both estrogen-like and anti-estrogen activities.

Esophageal or esophagus
The most prominent, scientifically supported, and long-regarded risk factors for esophageal cancer are tobacco, alcohol, and reflux esophagitis. Dietary habits, nutrition, local customs, and the environment are contributing factors. Along these lines, vitamins, minerals, fruits, vegetables, meats, fats, salted foods, nitrogen compounds, carcinogens, mycotoxins, and even the temperature of what we consume (for instance drinking very hot tea or coffee) are increasingly regarded as potential etiologies for this deadly although potentially preventable disease.

Carbonated drinks may raise the risk of esophageal cancer. A team at Tata Memorial Hospital in India found a strong correlation between the rise in per capita consumption of carbonated soft drinks in the past 50 years and a documented increase in rates of esophageal cancer in the United States. Team members studied U.S. Department of Agriculture data to find that per capita consumption of carbonated drinks rose by more than 450 percent, from 10 gallons on average in 1946 to 49 gallons in 2000. And over the past 25 years, the incidence of esophageal cancer has risen by more than 570 percent in white American men. Esophageal cancer affected 13,900 U.S. men and women in 2003, of whom more than 10,000 were men, and killed almost all of them, according to the American Cancer Society. The number of esophageal cancer cases clearly followed the rise in intake of carbonated soft drinks, the researchers found.
   Research in China provides further evidence that exposure to silica dust raises the risk of cancer of the esophagus, the organ that connects the mouth with the stomach. The association was first noted in 1968, when a high rate of esophagus cancer was observed among residents of a South African village, which seemed to result, in part, from silica contamination of their diet. Since then, numerous other reports have verified this association. In the present study, Dr. Ignatius Tak Sun Yu, of The Chinese University of Hong Kong, and colleagues evaluated death from esophagus cancer among nearly 3000 caisson workers and non-caisson workers exposed to silica. Caisson workers were defined as subjects who worked underground in settings with high levels of silica dust. The researchers' findings appear in the International Journal of Cancer. Compared with the general population, the workers were 2.2-times more likely to die from esophageal cancer. The elevated risk was 4.21-fold for the caisson subset of workers.
   In patients with early-stage cancer of the esophagus, those who were treated with radiation and chemotherapy before surgery lived more than twice as long as those who were treated with surgery alone.
   Persistent hiccupping in addition to weight-loss and difficulty swallowing could be a warning sign of cancer of the esophagus. Hiccups are caused by the involuntary spasm of the diaphragm, which causes the vocal cords to close very briefly. Eating too quickly or too much, coughing, laughing and too much alcohol are thought to cause hiccups. In cancer patients, hiccups could be linked to the vagal nerve or phrenic nerve, the motor nerve of the diaphragm.
   There is no association between the use of carbonated beverages and risk of subsequent development of cancer of the esophagus.
  
About a third of East Asians -- Chinese, Japanese and Koreans -- have an enzyme deficiency that puts them at higher risk of developing esophageal cancer when they drink alcohol.
   Overweight teens are at increased risk for developing it later in life. Cancer, news release, Oct. 14, 2013. Exercise lowers the risk.
   Bisphosphonates, drugs sold as Fosamax, Actonel, Boniva and other brands, are widely used after menopause to prevent or treat osteoporosis. They increase the risk.

Head and Neck
Chronic tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are well-established risk factors for the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. There are, however, a variety of other habitual and culturally based activities that are less commonly seen in the Western world and that are also risks factors for the development of this type of cancer. In this era of globalization, many of these habits have now crossed borders and appear in various areas throughout the world. These factors include chewing tobacco and snuff, areca nut in its various forms, and Khat leaves.
   People who eat plenty of fruits and vegetables have a lower risk of developing cancers of the head and neck. Researchers at the National Cancer Institute found that among more than 490,000 Americans age 50 and up, those who consumed the most fruits and vegetables were the least likely to develop cancers of the mouth, throat or voice box. Smoking and heavy drinking are two major risk factors for head and neck cancers. International Journal of Cancer, May 15, 2008.
   People with cancers of the head or neck have better survival odds if they have private health insurance. Head and neck cancers include cancers of the mouth, throat, nasal cavity, salivary glands and lymph nodes of the neck. Most cases are linked to smoking, with excessive drinking being the other major risk factor.

Intestinal
Diets high in saturated fat appear to increase the risk of cancer of the small intestine. The small intestine makes up 75 percent of the digestive tract, yet rarely do cancers develop there, more often showing up in the large intestine, or colon. Cancer Research, November 15, 2008.

Kidney
A diet high in refined cereals, and bread in particular, is associated with an elevated risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the main type of kidney cancer.
Eating red meat may increase a person's risk of developing renal cell carcinoma -- which accounts for 85 percent of kidney cancer, while eating vegetables may provide a protective effect. Dr. Nabih R. Asal of the University of Florida, Gainesville found that people who ate lots of white bread and white potatoes were at greater risk of the disease than their peers who ate these foods less frequently. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, April 2009.

Leukemia
Living near a fuel station may quadruple the risk of acute leukemia in children,. French scientists who carried out a study of more than 500 infants found that a child whose home was near a fuel station or vehicle-repair garage was four times as likely to develop leukemia as a child whose home was further away. And the longer a child had lived nearby, the higher the risk of leukemia seemed to be. The prevalence of childhood leukemia is four in every 100,000 children, but it is the most common type of childhood cancer in developed countries. Few clear risk factors have been identified for the childhood variant, but exposure to benzene in the workplace has been identified as a possible factor in leukemia in adults. The risk appeared to be even greater for acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, which was seven times more common among children living close to a fuel station or commercial garage. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, September 2004.
   Kids with leukemia do not take enough antioxidants, which raises their risk of side effects during chemotherapy. Chemotherapy produces changes that stress the body's antioxidant defense system. Therefore, it's important that the diets of cancer patients contain adequate amounts of antioxidants. In a 6-month study, the researchers examined antioxidant intake and chemotherapy side effects in 103 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in kids. During the study period subjects ingested vitamin E, total carotenoids, beta-carotene, and vitamin A in amounts that were 66, 30, 59, and 29 percent, respectively, of the US recommended dietary allowance. Greater intake of vitamin C was associated with fewer therapy delays, less side effects, and fewer days spent in the hospital. Similarly, the risk of infection and side effects decreased as vitamin E and beta-carotene intake increased.
   Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables during the first two years of life is associated with a reduced risk of childhood leukemia.
   Living near a high-voltage power line roughly doubles the risk of childhood cancers such as leukaemia.
   Rosemary extracts have been found to be helpful.

   Children being treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) seem more able to deal with their treatment if their levels of antioxidants don't drop too much.
   Parthenolide, a compound found in feverfew, has been tested against chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Liver
Heavy alcohol use, diabetes, and viral hepatitis combine synergistically to raise the risk of developing liver cancer. Carnitine may be helpful.

Lung
In people at high risk for lung cancer, low-dose CT scanning of the chest may detect early lung cancer. However, "its usefulness as a screening tool is limited because it misses tumors in certain areas of the lung and often falsely identifies harmless spots as being cancerous.
     Workers exposed to the pesticide chlorpyrifos have an elevated risk of lung cancer and lung disease. Annual screening for lung cancer using computed tomography (CT) can help detect the disease at its earliest, most curable stage, but it does not reduce mortality from the disease and could actually result in more harm than good.
     Plenty of sunshine and vitamin D may help people with early stage lung cancer survive longer after surgery. Patients who had high levels of vitamin D and had lung cancer surgery in sunny months were more than twice as likely to be alive five years after surgery compared to patients with low levels of vitamin D who had surgery in the winter. Exposure to sunshine is a significant source of vitamin D, which also comes from food and dietary supplements.
     A study conducted in an area of Italy where residential radon levels are high confirms that the risk of lung cancer increases in step with levels of radon exposure, but that the Mediterranean diet may modify the effects. In the study, researchers examined the association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer in 384 "case" patients with lung cancer and 404 control patients without lung cancer. They considered the potential role of smoking, diet, and other risk factors. The researchers determined residential history during the 30-year period ending 5 years prior to enrollment. Radon detectors were placed in the main bedroom and the living room in each residence for two consecutive 6-month periods. Confirming prior studies, the researchers found a positive link between indoor radon and lung cancer. The odds of developing lung cancer rose with increasing levels of residential radon exposure. Overall, the increase was generally not statistically significant, although significance was reached for some high radon exposure categories. They also report that individuals with low-medium consumption of dietary oxidants tended to be at greater risk for developing lung cancer. The possibility that dietary antioxidants may modify the effects of radon on lung cancer risk should be studied further, they conclude. SOURCE: International Journal of Cancer, May 10, 2005.
     Although both marijuana and tobacco smoke are packed with cancer-causing chemicals, other qualities of marijuana seem to keep it from promoting lung cancer. The difference rests in the often opposing actions of the nicotine in tobacco and the active ingredient, THC, in marijuana, says Dr. Robert Melamede of the University of Colorado in Colorado Springs. Whereas nicotine has several effects that promote lung and other types of cancer, THC acts in ways that counter the cancer-causing chemicals in marijuana smoke. Lab research indicates that nicotine activates a body enzyme that converts certain chemicals in both tobacco and marijuana smoke into cancer-promoting form. In contrast, studies in mice suggest that THC blocks this enzyme activity.
     Eating cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage, broccoli and sprouts, protects against the development of lung cancer. A person's genetic makeup may influence these anti-cancer benefits.

Lymphoma
Infection with hepatitis C virus nearly doubles the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's
lymphoma, a cancer involving the lymph nodes. People who undergo chest radiation therapy early in life to treat Hodgkin's disease -- a type of lymphoma -- appear to be at increased risk of cardiovascular abnormalities.

Melanoma skin cancer
Australia has the highest skin cancer rate in the world and despite decades of health campaigning the rate of melanoma, which is the most common kind of skin cancer, is soaring. The melanoma rate rose 12 percent in men and 15 percent in women in the last 10 years, and is expected to rise another 11 percent by 2011.

Neuroblastoma
Zeaxanthin is an interesting nutrient that has been looked at as a treatment for neuroblastoma.

Oral
Many healthy people who smoke or drink may have a genetic alteration in the cells of the mouth and throat that could signal an increased risk of developing cancer.
     A simple inspection of the mouth by trained healthcare workers could reduce oral cancer deaths worldwide by at least 37,000 annually. Oral cancer is a common problem among men in developing countries, and is often associated with tobacco or alcohol use. Short of convincing people not to engage in these activities -- which is notoriously difficult -- detecting and treating early disease may be the best approach. Visual inspection of the mouth has proven to be a simple and accurate means of screening for oral cancer.

Ovarian
After following more than 60,000 women for an average of 13.5 years, Swedish researchers found that those who drank at least two glasses of milk every day or consumed at least four daily servings of dairy products were twice as likely to develop serous epithelial ovarian cancer as those who consumed less than two servings of dairy a day.
   Increased risk with postmenopausal estrogen use. Decreased risk with aspirin use. Women who eat plenty of begetables, particluarly carrots, tomatoes and other foods high in carotene and lycopene may reduce their risk.
   A case-control study of diet and the risk of ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Sep;13(9):1521-7. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that some dietary factors may play a role in the etiology of ovarian cancer, but the findings have been inconsistent. We assessed the association of ovarian cancer with dietary factors in a population-based case-control study in Canada. Diet information was collected on 442 incident cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed in 1994 to 1997 and 2,135 population controls via a self-administered questionnaire. We did not observe an association of ovarian cancer risk with dietary fat intake, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fruit, dairy products, meat products, fish, chicken, grain products, nut products, baked desserts, margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and supplement of multiple vitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, zinc, and selenium. Our findings suggested that ovarian cancer risk was positively associated with higher consumption of dietary cholesterol and eggs and inversely associated with higher intake of total vegetables and cruciferous vegetables and supplementation of vitamin E, beta-carotene, and B-complex vitamins.

Pancreatic
Physical activity decreases risk, obesity increases risk. A diet high in vegetables reduces the risk of
pancreatic cancer. Smokers who consume diets rich in saturated fat may be at increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Processed meats increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.

Penile
A sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical cancer is also a cause for half of all cases of cancer of the penis, Perhaps human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines for cervical cancer are also likely to be effective in the fight against penile cancer. Merck & Co's Gardasil and GlaxoSmithKline's Cervarix are both used widely to immunize girls against HPV infection, which can lead to cancer of the cervix. However, penile cancer is quite rare, accounting for less than 1 percent of adult male cancers in Europe and North America, although the incidence can be as high as 10 percent in parts of Africa and Asia. Worldwide, there are more than 25,000 new cases every year.

Prostate
Click prostate cancer for a full discussion of the latest research on diet and natural supplements involved in the prevention or treatment of prostate cancer.

Skin
Is the use of sunscreens effective in preventing wrinkles or damage to skin leading to abnormal growth leading to skin cancer?

Stomach
Regularly consuming hot dogs, salami, bacon, smoked ham, or other processed meat products may raise the risk of stomach cancer.

Testicular or testis
Testicular cancer occurs in about 8000 men each year.
Q. I am a 43 year old male who recently underwent an inguinal orchiectomy - 10 days ago. I noticed I was having some ''hot flashes'' last week while I was recovering, and informed my Urologist about these symptoms. He had blood drawn from me (not in the morning as suggested), the findings indicated I had an abnormally low testosterone count of 26 nanograms per deciliter. To back up somewhat, I had been taking about 250 mg of DHEA per day for well over a year and only discontinued it's use about 5 days prior to my diagnosis of testicular cancer. So, as of today I have been off DHEA for approximately 2 weeks. Now my Doctor has me on a topical gel to replace testosterone and has basically told me I am stuck with this for life. I have one testicle, but it appears to not be functioning.
   A. This is interesting, I do not know if taking the high dosages of DHEA had an influence on the testicular cancer formation.

Throat
Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes increase the risk.

Uterine
The use of clomiphene citrate to induce ovulation in women with fertility problems appears to be associated with an increased risk of uterine cancer.

What is it?
A cancer is a cell that has lost its normal control mechanisms and thus has unregulated growth. Cancer can develop from any tissue within any organ. As cells grow and multiply, they form a mass of cancerous tissue that invades adjacent tissues and can spread (metastasize) around the body

Cancer cells develop from normal cells in a complex process called transformation. The first step in the process is initiation, in which a change in the cell's genetic material primes the cell to become cancerous. The change in the cell's genetic material is brought about by an agent called a carcinogen--such as a chemical, virus, radiation, or sunlight. However, not all cells are equally susceptible to carcinogens. A genetic flaw in the cell or another agent, called a promoter, may make it more susceptible. Even chronic physical irritation may make cells more susceptible to becoming cancerous. In the next step, promotion, a cell that has been initiated becomes cancerous. Several factors, often the combination of a susceptible cell and a carcinogen, are needed to cause cancer. About 15 to 20 percent of cancers are associated with an infection, for instance viruses with cervical cancer and helicobacter pylori with gastric cancer.

Radiation exposure
Nuclear industry workers exposed to chronic low doses of radiation have a slightly higher risk of developing cancer. Approximately one person out of 1,000 would develop cancer from exposure to the amount of radiation from a single, average whole body CT-scan. Even very low doses of radiation pose a risk of cancer over a person’s lifetime, including radiation from routine X-rays.

People who get whole-body X-ray scans in the hope of finding tumors at their earliest stages may, ironically, be raising their overall risk of cancer. The scans are marketed as a way to catch cancer before symptoms begin, but the radiation from the scans themselves could cause cancer.

Work exposure of toxins
Death rates, both overall and cancer -related, are considerably higher among workers engaged in manufacturing computers and component parts, when compared with the general population. Similar findings have been reported among employees who work in plants that manufacture computers, semiconductors, integrated circuits and other components

Pollution
Diesel fumes from the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach -- the busiest U.S. seaport complex -- raise the risk of cancer for people living up to 15 miles inland. The report by the California Air Resources Board said 50,000 people living closest to the two ports face a higher-than-average risk of developing cancer from port pollution alone. But even residents living within 15 miles of the complex face a slightly higher risk than Californians as a whole.

Research
Treatment with a shark cartilage product does not prolong life in patients with advanced cancer, nor does it improve quality of life. Shark cartilage has become a popular alternative medicine for people with advanced cancer. Its use is based on the belief that the reason sharks rarely develop cancer is because of their high cartilage content. Previous reports examining the benefits of shark cartilage as an anti-cancer therapy, however, have yielded mixed results. In one of the few randomized trials to evaluate this treatment, Dr. Charles L. Loprinzi, from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and colleagues compared the outcomes of 89 patients with incurable breast or colon cancer who were treated with shark cartilage or placebo in addition to standard care and treatment with chemotherapy if appropriate. The shark cartilage and placebo were supplied as a powder, mixed with water or juice, and consumed three to four times per day. There was no difference in overall survival between subjects drinking shark cartilage and those drinking placebo, the researchers report in the journal Cancer.

Growing body of evidence linking increased night light to certain types of cancer has led researchers to suspect it could be connected to the steady increase in cases of childhood leukemia. Scientists presenting research at the First International Scientific Conference on Childhood Leukemia said that light at night and working shifts, which disrupts the body's internal clock, have been associated with an raised risk of breast and colorectal cancer.

Loss of weight and muscle mass, common among people with cancer, may be improved with fish oil supplements, according to a report. Intestinal upsets make high-dose fish oil capsules difficult for many people with cancer-related wasting to tolerate, but those who are able to take the supplements regularly may be able to stabilize their weight or even gain pounds, according to Dr. Patrick Burns of the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine in Iowa City and colleagues. Animal studies and some clinical investigations have suggested omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils may protect against cachexia, as weight loss related to a chronic disease is called.

The intake of 400-600 g/d of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many common forms of cancer, and diets rich in plant foods are also associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases of ageing. These foods contain phytochemicals that have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties which confer many health benefits. Many phytochemicals are colourful, and recommending a wide array of colourful fruits and vegetables is an easy way to communicate increased diversity of intake to the consumer. For example, red foods contain lycopene, the pigment in tomatoes, which is localized in the prostate gland and may be involved in maintaining prostate health, and which has also been linked with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Green foods, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale, contain glucosinolates which have also been associated with a decreased risk of cancer. Garlic and other white-green foods in the onion family contain allyl sulphides which may inhibit cancer cell growth. Other bioactive substances in green tea and soybeans have health benefits as well.

The Unending Debate: Do Vitamin Pills Prevent Cancer?
For several decades the scientific community has debated whether vitamin and mineral supplements prevent or reduce the risk of cancer. Over the years numerous studies have given contradictory results leaving the medical community uncertain of what to recommend to the public. In this latest study, scientists, from the Scientific and Technical Institute for Nutrition and Diet in Paris, France gave a vitamin/mineral supplement to thousands of men and women. A total of 13,000 men and women aged 35 to 60 took part in the study. Half were given a daily supplement containing 6mg of beta-carotene, 120mg of vitamin C, 90mg of vitamin E, 100 micrograms of selenium, and 20 milligrams of zinc. A dummy capsule was given to the other participants. At the end of seven years, the researchers found that taking the supplement had no effect on heart disease, and did not influence cancer rates in women. But they found a 31% reduction in the risk of all cancers in men taking the antioxidants. And, overall, the death rate was 37% lower among men who took the supplement. The researchers, said: "Our findings support recommendations for following a healthy diet, particularly one rich in fruit and vegetables which are major dietary sources of antioxidant vitamins and minerals, for all ages in life and for both sexes." They added that women may not have received the same benefits because their diet were better than those of men and they perhaps were already ingesting many healthy antioxidants through their diet.
     Dr. Sahelian says: The debate seems to continue regarding the role of vitamin/mineral supplements and the prevention of cancer. It appears that those with a very health diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables are not likely to reap much benefit from supplements, but those with a marginal diet would.

Vitamin B17, laetrile for cancer remedy
What do you think of laetrile as a cancer remedy?
   I have not seen convincing studies that vitamin B17 is effective as a cancer remedy.

The last days of cancer treatment
There appears to be a disturbing rise in the number of cancer patients getting chemo and other aggressive but futile treatment in the last days of their lives. Rather than letting these dying patients live the last days of their lives in peace, they are subjected to painful and nauseating chemotherapy. Nearly 12 percent of cancer patients who died in 1999 received chemotherapy in the last two weeks of life, a large review of Medicare records revealed. That is up from nearly 10 percent in 1993, and the percentage probably is even higher today. Overly aggressive treatment gives false hope and puts people through grueling and costly ordeals when there is no chance of a cure.
     I remember in my residency days at a Philadelphia hospital encountering so many patients who very on their to dying, but rather than providing supportive care in a hospice or with their family, the oncologists pushed more and more drugs on them. One particular patient, a 74 year old man with metastatic lung cancer, had come for intensive chemotherapy. He was actually alert and in relatively good shape when he first came in. He was started on chemotherapy and within a couple of days he started losing weight at a rapid pace, his hemoglobin level dropped, he started getting rashes and bruises all over his body, his white blood cell count dropped, and soon he had chemotherapy induced nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He got infected with a gastrointestinal bug, was given antibiotics which made him even more sick. Even as he was rapidly deteriorating, the oncologist kept prescribing more chemotherapy. I was a first year resident and thought at the time that the doctor must know what he was doing. As I reflected on this more later, it became apparent to me that specialists do make mistakes or may be suggesting medical treatments just so that they can continue charging for their visits. Within 6 weeks of being admitted into the hospital he passed away, a miserable, painful, death. I've long thought about him and whether he would have been better off staying home. All all the medical dollars that were wasted on him could have been used to immunize poor children or helping those with no medical insurance.

Food additives and cancer
Food coloring Red 2G (E 128), which is added to some breakfast sausages and burger meat, may cause cancer. Tests using animals indicated that aniline, a substance into which Red 2G is converted in the body, might cause cancer in animals and humans, possibly hitting the genetic material of cells.

Questions
Q. I've seen promotional material for glyconutrient and cancer, can you shed some light on this?
   A. I have a full discussion on glyconutrients here.

Q. i wanted to ask as i read many herbs that could treat cancer like Essaic Tea, Noni Juice, Goji Berry mangosteen, so i wanted to ask what is the difference between them and which do u think is more effective. Aslo, can you comment on Dr. Johanna Budwigs flaxseed oil and cottage cheese cancer cure?
   A. It is impossible to know which is better or which combination is best since so little study has been done on humans with these herbs. As to Dr. Johanna Budwigs flaxseed oil and cottage cheese diet treatment, I have not seen such studies that show it to be effective.

Q. Should a patient with cancer take any supplements that increase testosterone? I understand that testosterone feeds cancer.
   A. There are a number of different types of cancer, some are responsive to blood hormone levels or hormone usage, others are not. Testosterone is particularly associated with prostate cancer.

This is the problem. We can't "trust" the laymen and we can't trust the corporations and we can't trust many doctors and we certainly can't "trust" the internet. I trust in God, who told me He helps those who help themselves, so now I am studying integrative medicine. Because I am too poor to go back to the University, and I live in a remote rural community, I have to educate and make decisions for myself. I would no more follow the advice of Florida Congresswoman's advice than I would that of the Cancer society or the doctor I am assigned to, without researching thoroughly. They are only dangerous to those who do not take the time to research her position. Most people do not have the time to do as I do. They will take "on faith" that anyone in "authority" knows what he is talking about. They
are too busy juggling stressful lives, and easily intimidated. And most of them will add the stress of ill health to the rest of their problems. I subscribe to your newsletter because I consider you a relatively knowledgeable and intelligent person. You and Dr. Weil, Dr. Pauling, Dr. Hoffer and Dr. Strand all share a trait I have come to appreciate on the internet ... you are all conservative both in discussion and the language used to present it, and you cite references. You are also
Integrative or orthomolecular physicians, not snake-oil salesmen with instant cures. Much of this is above my head, but I am learning. No one person can store all this in his head. I have decided it is the essence of wisdom not to retain it all but to retain its sources and its references. You offer a good reference and are a good source.

Could you answer which of the following you feel might be good or bad: Cesium Chloride - DMSO/MSM/Cesium Chloride (DMCC), MMS (chlorine dioxide), Gerson Therapy, Bob Beck Protocol, Cellect-Budwig Ozone Therapy, Dr. Stananislaw Burzynsk antineoplastons and Aminocare, Lifewave, Insulin Potentiation Therapy (IPT), Matthias Rath Oral Amino Acid Protocol, Brandt Grape Protocol, Intravenice C. Supplements covered on your site: Avemar Dong quai (for anemia caused by Multiple Myeloma) Energy Kampo Force-C (Ginsenoside - Aglycon Sapongenin) Germanium 132, Graviola MaxHerbal C (Taxus Brevifolia, Ginsenoside aglycon sapogenin), Immune C Spray (Baccharis Trimera, Plantago Majora Extract, Rosmarinus Officinalis) NTense NTense-2, Pancreatic Enzymes, Peony root (for anemia caused by Multiple Myeloma), Poly-MVA, Pawpaw, SaliciniumVitalsil (Antrodia camphorata), Zolite, limu.
   I have not looked into these alternative cancer therapies to any great extent to have a thorough and educated opinion.