Cynaropicrin is a sesquiterpene lactone with a bitter taste from Artichoke leaf extract
March 11 2016

Cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus suppresses photoaging of skin by inhibiting the transcription activity of nuclear factor-kappa B.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013. Gifu University Yanagido, Gifu City, Gifu, Japan.
Aging of skin is characterized by skin wrinkling, laxity, and pigmentation induced by several environmental stress factors. Histological changes during the photoaging of skin include hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and melanocytes causing skin wrinkles and pigmentation. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is one of the representative transcription factors active in conjunction with inflammation. NF-κB is activated by stimulation such as ultraviolet rays and inflammatory cytokines and induces the expression of various genes such as those of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1). We screened several plant extracts for their possible inhibitory effect on the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. One of them, an extract from Cynara scolymus L., showed a greatest effect on the suppression of NF-κB transactivation. As a result, we found that cynaropicrin, which is a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibited the NF-κB-mediated transactivation of bFGF and MMP-1. Furthermore, it was confirmed that in an in vivo mouse model cynaropicrin prevented skin photoaging processes leading to the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and melanocytes. These findings taken together indicate that cynaropicrin is an effective antiphotoaging agent that acts by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated transactivation.

Sesquiterpene lactones from Saussurea alata.
Nat Prod Res. 2007; Research Centre of Siyuan Natural Pharmacy and Bio-toxicity, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
Two new guaianolides together with six known guaianolides, 8-hydroxyzaluzanin C, austricin, chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin, chlorohyssopifolin E and chlorohyssopifolin A were isolated from the aerial parts of Saussurea alata.

Studies on chemical constituents of Acroptilon repens
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Nov; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
To investigate the chemical constituents of Acroptilon repens. The ethanol extract of A. repens was isolated and purified by means of chromatography. These compounds were identified by their spectral data. 11 compounds were isolated and identified as 2alpha, 9beta-dihydroxy-dehydrocostus lactone , cynaropicrin , apigenin, stigmasterol, 4' -hydroxywogonin, ethyl caffeate, p-methoxy-cinnamic acid, luteolin, daucosterol, apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, syringin.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013. Activities of psilostachyin A and cynaropicrin against Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and in vivo.