Fruit health benefit, nutrition, nutrients, buy a variety from your grocery store
January 16 2016
Ray Sahelian, M.D.

Try many different ones rather than just purchasing the ones most people normally do such as apples, oranges, and grapefruits. Each fruit has a different set of beneficial plant substances such as carotenoids and flavonoids that have antibacterial, anti-oipinflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Reduce your fruit juice intake if you are diabetic. Avoid drinking lots of fruits juices since they contain a large amount of fructose. Fructose can elevate blood sugar and lead to weight gain.
    Wash all fruits before eating to reduce pesticides and contamination by germs. Buy organic when possible.

Benefit of eating fruits
Diabetes and influence on blood sugar
Epidemiology. 2013. Fruit intake and incident diabetic retinopathy with type 2 diabetes. Increased intake in ranges commonly consumed is associated with reduced incident diabetic retinopathy among patients adhering to a low-fat energy-restricted diet.

Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2013. Effect of daily supplementation of fruits on oxidative stress indices and glycaemic status in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study sought to examine whether consumption of two low-calorie fruit/day for 3-months can effectively improve oxidative stress, anthropometry, blood pressure and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study involved 123 patients who were assigned to receive either standard care or with additional dietary therapy. Dietary intervention resulted in significant reduction in malondialdehyde, plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin and improvement in antioxidants like vitamin C and reduced glutathione when compared to controls. Mean plasma levels of vitamin C increased by 64%. There were no differences in waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, vitamin E and superoxide dismutase in the intervention group at follow-up. Diet rich in fruits can improve some antioxidants which are likely to reduce oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. Regular consumption of fruits can lower the glycaemic status in these patients. The study supports the usefulness of plasma vitamin C as a biomarker for fruit intake.

Biochemicals found in berries, citrus fruit and red wine might help men maintain healthy erections. Foods rich in these flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of erectile dysfunction.

Types of Fruits available to the consumer
Acai Berry is from the Amazon rainforest and delicious acai berry smoothies are available.
Acerola fruit is available as a supplement.
Amla extract is used in India and by Ayurvedic doctors.
Apple. In 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, after decades of consideration, has proposed limiting the amount of inorganic arsenic in apple juice to the same level of the potential cancer-causing chemical allowed in U.S. drinking water.
Apricot
Aronia fruit
Banana - Salustiano Sanchez, 112, was named world's oldest man in June 2013. He died in September 2013 at a nursing home in western New York.  Salustiano Sanchez enjoyed gardening, crossword puzzles, gin rummy, and playing music. His longevity, he once said, is a result of eating a banana a day. I am not sure that a babana a day can help one live longer, but at least we know it is not harmful to consume it since Salustiano ate one daily and managed to live to 112.
Baobab Adansonia Digitata - Baobab, Monkey Bread Tree, Kremetart Tree, Cream of Tartar, Upside-down Tree. Baobab fruits have a hard coconut-like shell, inside which are the seeds and a natural fruit powder that is tangy in taste. It is this powder that is used in food and drink products.

Berries - bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, strawberry. See berries for more information.
Borojo fruit grows in South America, including the country of Colombia.
Caigua is a curved, long fruit native to Peru sometimes eaten as a vegetable.

Camu Camu is a fruit from the Amazon rainforest that has a high content of vitamin C.
Cantaloupe fruit health benefit
Cherry fruit extract is available as a supplement
Coconut fruit
Cranberry fruit and juice are helpful for urinary health. You can find Cranberry extract for sale at Physician Formulas.
Cupuacu fruit from the Amazon forest

Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. It can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fiber, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that it has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as syrup, paste, juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, and others.

Dragonfruit is delicious
Durian fruit health benefits
Fig
Gac fruit has a high concentration of lycopene, vitamin C, zeaxanthin, and beta carotene. Gac fruit grows in Asia.
Goji berry
Guava
Grape has many health benefits due to content of
Resveratrol and other beneficial substances.
Grapefruit fruit. Grape seed extract is sold as a supplement.

Irvingia gabonensis is also known as African mango, a fruit commonly eaten in West Africa, including Cameron and Gabon. Extracts from this fruit are helpful as weight loss supplements.

Kiwi
Compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins C, E, K, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting in synergy to achieve multiple health benefits. Kiwifruit, as part of a healthy diet, may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease triglycerides, platelet aggregation, and elevated blood pressure.

Effects of kiwifruit consumption on serum lipid profiles and antioxidative status in hyperlipidemic subjects.
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of consumption of two kiwi fruit per day on the lipid profile, antioxidants and markers of lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemic adult men and women in Taiwan. Forty-three subjects who had hyperlipidemia, including 13 males and 30 females were asked to consume two kiwi fruits per day for 8 weeks. No significant differences from baseline to 8 weeks of the intervention were detected for triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, or LDL cholesterol. However, after 8 weeks of consumption of kiwi fruit, the HDL-C concentration was significantly increased and the LDL cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio were significantly decreased. Vitamin C and vitamin E also increased significantly.Regular consumption of kiwi fruit might exert beneficial effects on the antioxidative status and the risk factors for CVD in hyperlipidemic subjects.

Lemon -
Citric acid is responsible for the tart taste of many fruits where it is found. Citric acid is present in citric fruits such as lemons, limes, oranges, and pineapples.

Lime
Longan berry - I have tasted dried longan berry and it is delicious.
Luo han guo fruit extract is many times sweeter than sugar.
Luo-Han-Guo has been used as a natural sweetener in China for nearly a millennium due to its flavor and lack of food energy,
Loquat fruit and loquat leaf extract
Lucuma fruit powder is used in ice cream
Lychee fruit
Mango fruit grows in the tropics. Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera which consists of about 30 species of tropical fruiting trees. Lupeol is a compound in fruits like mangoes and strawberries.
Mangosteen fruit grows in Asia and
Mangosteen supplements have become quite popular.
Mulberry
Nashi
Orange
Papaya
fruit (Carica papaya) - Papaya has an enzyme called papain, a protease. See Wobenzym supplement that contains papain. Green papaya extract is becoming more popular.
Passion fruit, or purple granadilla (‘little pomegranate’ in Spanish), is full of vitamins A and C, potassium, and fiber -- with only 20 calories. Tasting a lot like guava, enjoy the passion fruit sliced in half, scooping out the seedy pulp.dd
Peach
Pear
Pineapple -
Bromelain is an enzyme found in pineapples. Supplements of Bromelain are available over the counter.
Plum
Pomegranate fruit has become quite popular due to many purple colored antioxidants. See Pomegranate if you would like to buy this supplement.
Prickly pear cactus fruit is delicious and has many health benefits. Supplements of Prickly-Pear-Cactus are available.

Prune juice is great for those who have constipation. Prunes are high in dietary fiber and are beneficial in preventing constipation, may be helpful in weight loss, promote a healthy colon, and lower inflammatory.

Purple Grape
Quince fruit

Star Fruit (Carambola) is a waxy, golden-yellow fruit tasting of citrus, apple, and plum,. Star fruit comes from Southeast Asia. Sweet-tart, each fruit contains 40 calories and is a great source of vitamin C. Wash, slice, and eat the entire star-shaped treat -- there’s no need to peel or seed it.

Tangerine peel has some anti cancer potential
Tomato - Botanically speaking, a tomato is a fruit since it is the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, from a culinary perspective, the tomato is served as part of a main course of a meal, as are other vegetables, rather than at dessert.
Watermelon is a fruit that has a pinkish color which is due to the high Lycopene content. Watermelon is a delicious fruit dessert when eaten with feta cheese.

White Grape
Wolfberry is also called goji berry.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010. Free fruit at workplace intervention increases total fruit intake: a validation study using 24 h dietary recall and urinary flavonoid excretion.

Promotional email received in 2016
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Allergy to fruit, oral allergy syndrome
Some people have an allergic reaction to certain fruits -- for example, raw apples but not cooked apples. That's because there are proteins in raw apples that are very similar to the proteins in birch pollen. Cooking the offending fruits and vegetables change the shapes of these proteins, so people with an allergy syndrome will usually be able to eat them without a problem.
   A common oral allergy syndrome, for instance with itchy or swelling lips, occurs with eating a mango and being exposed to the rind. Some people find that the peel of a fruit has more allergens than the meat. Because the reaction is usually localized to the mouth area, including lips, tongue, and throat, some people will choose to ignore the symptoms and continue to eat offending foods. In rare cases people with oral allergy syndrome experience anaphylaxis, a life-threatening reaction that may include blocked airways, hypertension, anxiety, vomiting and diarrhea. The most severe reactions require the use of an injection of epinephrine to subsides. Some people who undergo allergy shots for pollen allergies will experience relief in oral allergy syndrome.

Pollens and associated foods
Ragweed: Bananas, melons (watermelon, cantaloupe, honeydew), tomatoes
Birch: Apples, carrots, celery, peaches, pears, potatoes, hazelnuts
Grass: Kiwis, tomatoes
Mugwort: Apples, carrots, celery, kiwi fruit, peanuts, some spices (caraway seeds, parsley, coriander, anise seeds, fennel seeds)
Source: The Mayo Clinic

Toxic fruits
Manchineel poisoning happened to me.

Vegetable and Fruit Powder
Immunity and antioxidant capacity in humans is enhanced by consumption of a dried, encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate.
J Nutr. 2006. Nantz MP, Rowe CA, Percival SS. Food Science and Human Nutrition Department University of Florida Gainesville, Florida.
We hypothesized that a commercially available encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate could support functional indices of health due to increased intake of various phytonutrients. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled investigation of 59 healthy law students who consumed either fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate or placebo capsules for 77 days. Blood was collected on d 1, 35, and 77 to examine the number of circulating alphabeta- and gammadelta-T cells, cytokine production, lymphocyte DNA damage, antioxidant status, and levels of carotenoids and vitamin C. A log of illnesses and symptoms was also kept. The FVJC group tended to have fewer total symptoms than the placebo group. By day 77 there was a 30% increase in circulating gammadelta-T cells and a 40% reduction in DNA damage in lymphocytes in the fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate group relative to the placebo group. Plasma levels of vitamin C and of beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein increased significantly from baseline in the fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate group as did plasma oxygen radical absorptive capacity (50%). Interferon-gamma produced by phorbol-stimulated lymphocytes was reduced 70% in the fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate group, whereas other cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, transforming growth factor beta) were unchanged relative to treatment or time. fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate consumption during this study period resulted in increased plasma nutrients and antioxidant capacity, reduction in DNA strand breaks, and an increase in circulating gammadelta-T cells.

Fruit Juice and Weight Gain
Experts generally recommend limiting children's fruit juice drinking due to potential excess calorie intake. The higher a child's fruit juice intake, the greater the gain in body fat over time -- generally among children who are initially overweight or on the verge of becoming so. Children who eat whole fruits gain less body fat. Many fruit juices typically contain added sugar, and therefore, calories. The fruit juice boxes so popular with kids typically contain about 100 calories each. So a few of those each day can start to add up. Pediatrics, November 2006.
   However, pure fruit juice should not put weigh on kids if drank in moderate amounts. Contrary to popular belief, drinking pure 100 percent fruit juice does not make young children overweight or at risk for becoming overweight. Pure fruit juice provides essential nutrients and, in moderation, may actually help children maintain a healthy weight. The key here is moderation.

Consumption of skim milk, in comparison with a fruit drink, leads to increased perceptions of satiety and to decreased energy intake at a subsequent meal.

Fruit juice or eating fruit -  which is better?
Researchers have for years believed that vegetable and fruit juice do not have the same health benefits as a their whole fruit counterparts. But a study conducted by British nutrition researchers challenges this view. It is likely that 100 per cent fruit juice extracts could be just as effective in reducing the risk of some cancers and cardiovascular disease. the positive impact fruits and vegetables offer comes not from just the fiber, but also from the antioxidants, which are present in both the fruit juice as well as the whole fruit and vegetables.

Fruit drinks and diabetes
Sweetened fruit drinks are marketed as a healthier alternative to non-diet soft drinks but are just as likely to cause weight gain and increase the risk of diabetes.

Fruits and prescription drug absorption
Juice from certain fruits such as grapefruit, oranges, and apples, as well as the whole fruits, decrease oral absorption of some drugs by blocking an intestinal uptake transporter. Dr. David G. Bailey had previously reported that grapefruit juice blocks the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome p450 3A4, boosting blood concentrations of some drugs to potentially toxic levels. Since then, nearly 50 medications have been found to carry the risk of grapefruit-induced adverse drug reactions. When consumed with either a glass of grapefruit juice or water containing the grapefruit flavonoid naringin, antihistamine fexofenadine drug absorption is reduced by half. Naringin has influence on the absorption of water soluble prescription drugs. The effects of fruits may be noticed with immunosuppressant cyclosporine, the antineoplastic agent etoposide, some beta blockers (atenolol, celiprolol, talinolol), and some antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, itraconazole). Prescription medications should be taken at least 4 hours after fruit juice intake.

Questions
I'm working on an article for a health magazine about hybrid fruits, and their health benefits. I'm trying to find out more about plumcots, and some of the benefits they may offer. I read a bit about phenolic compounds and was wondering if plumcots (a 50-50 split of apricots and plums) would be a good source of these antioxidants, and possibly any others. Also, I'm wondering what kind of benefits the presence of these antioxidants could offer my readers.
    It's difficult to know the full benefits of a hybrid fruit since it's nutritional value would not be as well investigated. But, as a general rule, it is a good idea to obtain a wide range of antioxidants from different fruits as opposed to a limited number. Many people have 2 or 3 of their favorite fruits and return to them over and over. It is a good idea to expand one's range and hybrid fruits are such an option. These fruits do contain phenolic antioxidants.

Every day I have been putting a bunch of fruits and veggies in a blender and juicing them. Specifically -- one banana, one tomato, one orange, one apple, some baby carrots, some spinach leaves, four to five strawberries, some blueberries, and about five blackberries. Then I add a tablespoon (or less) of honey with a dash of cinnamon. (I've read about the nutritional benefits of honey and cinnamon.) I also take a good liquid multi-vitamin (Eniva Vibe) and two tablets of combined fish / flax / borage oil every day, and drink about 4-5 bottles of water as well. Is this a sufficient amount of fruits and veggies? Should I be doing more? Any input you could offer would be greatly appreciated. I am 29 years and and not necessarily looking to lose weight. I'm just interested in a nutritionally sound lifestyle.
   It's a good idea to include a wide variety of vegetables in the diet as opposed to consuming the same ones every day.