Gallic acid health benefit, uses
August 20 2017

Gallic acid is an organic acid found in sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, carob, oak bark, and other plants. Salts and esters of gallic acid are termed gallates.

Benefit

Colitis, colon inflammation
Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015.

Heart disease
Cardioprotective effect of gallic acid on cardiac troponin-T, cardiac marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.
Chem Biol Interact. 2008. Priscilla DH. Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India.
This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of gallic acid on cardiac marker enzymes, troponin-T, LDH-isoenzyme pattern, lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant status in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with gallic acid (15mg/kg) daily for a period of 10 days. After the treatment period, ISO (100mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to rats at an interval of 24h for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased activities of marker enzymes such as creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase in serum and the levels of troponin-T in the serum. Increased LDH-isoenzyme bands (LDH-1 and LDH-2) were also observed in serum of ISO-induced rats. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma and the heart were significantly  increased and the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase in the heart and non-enzymic antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamin C and E in plasma and the heart were significantly decreased in ISO-induced rats. The level of uric acid in plasma was increased in ISO-treated rats. Gallic acid pretreatment showed significant protective effect on all the biochemical parameters studied. Histopathological findings of gallic acid pretreated myocardial infarcted heart confirmed the biochemical findings of this study. Thus, gallic acid protects the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress.

HIV infection
Indian J Med Res. 2013. Ellagic acid & gallic acid from Lagerstroemia speciosa inhibit HIV-1 infection through inhibition of HIV-1 protease & reverse transcriptase activity. Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa) extracts have been used as traditional medicines and are effective in controlling diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV property of the extracts prepared from the leaves and stems of banaba, and further purification and characterization of the active components. The active components responsible for anti-HIV activity were gallic acid and ellagic acid, through inhibition of reverse transcriptase and HIV protease, respectively and hence could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HIV-1 agents.

Rheumatoid arthritis
Joint Bone Spine. 2013. Gallic acid, a natural polyphenolic acid, induces apoptosis and inhibits proinflammatory gene expressions in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

Exercise, physical exertion
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014. Effects of a freeze-dried juice blend powder on exercise-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune function in cyclists. A freeze-dried fruit and vegetable juice powder (JUICE) was investigated as a countermeasure nutritional strategy to exercise-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune perturbations in trained cyclists. Thirty-four cyclists (25 male, 9 female) were randomized to control (nonJUICE) or JUICE for 17 days. JUICE provided 230 mg·day(-1) of flavonoids, doubling the typical adult daily intake. During a 3-d period of intensified exercise (days 15-17), subjects cycled at 70%-75% V̇O2max for 2.25 h per day, followed by a 15-min time trial. Blood samples were collected presupplementation, post supplementation (pre-exercise), and immediately and 14-h post exercise on the third day of exercise. Samples were analyzed for inflammation (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)), oxidative stress (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), reduced and oxidized glutathione, protein carbonyls), and innate immune function (granulocyte (G-PHAG) and monocyte (M-PHAG) phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity). A 2 (group) × 4 (time points) repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant time effects due to 3 days of exercise for IL-6 (396% increase), IL-8 (78% increase), TNFα (12% increase), MCP-1 (30% increase), G-PHAG (38% increase), M-PHAG (36% increase), FRAP (12% increase), ORAC (11% decrease at 14 h post exercise), and protein carbonyls (82% increase at 14 h post exercise). No significant interaction effects were found for any of the physiological measures. Although providing 695 gallic acid equivalents of polyphenols per day, JUICE treatment for 17 days did not change exercise-induced alterations in inflammation and oxidative stress or immune function in trained cyclists after a 3-day period of overreaching.