Glutathione supplement pill health benefit and side effects - How to increase glutathione levels naturally with herbs, vitamins, nutrients, whey protein and dietary pills by Ray Sahelian, M.D.
December 12 2016

L Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant found within every cell where it plays a role in nutrient metabolism, regulation of cellular events (including gene expression, DNA and protein synthesis, cell growth, and immune response. Taken as a supplement, it may not be able to cross across the cell membrane and thus it is not clear how effective a supplement would be if taken orally as a pill. Consider acetylcysteine which is an antioxidant that can regenerate glutathione within cells. Another antioxidant to consider is the mineral selenium.
   This antioxidant, made from the combination of three amino acids cysteine, glutamate, and glycine, forms part of the powerful natural antioxidant glutathione peroxidase which is found in our cells. Glutathione peroxidase plays a variety of roles in cells, including DNA synthesis and repair, metabolism of toxins and carcinogens, enhancement of the immune system, and prevention of fat oxidation. However, this antioxidant is mainly known for protecting our cells from damage caused by the free radical hydrogen peroxide. It also helps the other antioxidants in cells stay in their active form. Brain glutathione levels have been found to be lower in patients with Parkinsonís disease.
   Glutathione supplements are available over the counter. I am not aware of any human research with these products in terms of treating a medical condition or having an influence on longevity, and do not know how well they work. If you do wish to purchase such a product, here is one option.

In food and in our diet
Glutathione is found in foods, particularly fruits, vegetables and meats. Cyanohydroxybutene, a chemical found in broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and cabbage, is also thought to increase glutathione levels. Various herbs -- for instance cinnamon, garlic, onions, and  cardomom -- have compounds that can restore healthy levels of glutathione. Brazil nuts contain a high amount of selenium which can increase glutathione levels.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2014. Comparative assessment of onion and garlic extracts on endogenous hepatic and renal antioxidant status in rat.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2012. Assessment of red onion on antioxidant activity in rat. Red onions contain antioxidative compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary red onion peel and/or flesh on antioxidative activity in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (18 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Each group was raised for 4 weeks on a red onion free control diet (ND), red onion diet containing 5% red onion peel (RP), 5% red onion flesh (RF), or 5% red onion peel+flesh (RPF). The results demonstrated that serum SOD activity was significantly increased in the RP and RPF groups, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly higher in the RF group than in the ND group. Catalase activity and ORAC activity in liver showed upward tendency in the RP, RF, and RPF groups although the differences were not statistically significant. Liver malondialdehyde levels in the RPF group were significantly lower than those in the ND group were. In conclusion, red onion may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of plasma SOD and GPx activities and inhibited liver lipid peroxidation. Therefore, red onion may exert important protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases.

Brazil nuts: an effective way to improve selenium status.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008.
We investigated the efficacy of Brazil nuts in increasing selenium status in comparison with selenomethionine. Participants consumed 2 Brazil nuts thought to provide approximately 100 mug Selenium, 100 mug Selenium as selenomethionine, or placebo daily for 12 wk. Actual intake from nuts averaged 53 mug Selenium /d (possible range: 20-84 mug Se). Plasma selenium and plasma and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activities were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk, and effects of treatments were compared. Plasma selenium increased by 64%, 61%, and 7%; plasma glutathione peroxidase by 8%, 3%, and -1%; and whole blood glutathione peroxidase by 13%, 5%, and 1.9% in the Brazil nut, selenomethionine, and placebo groups, respectively. Consumption of 2 Brazil nuts daily is as effective for increasing selenium status and enhancing glutathione peroxidase activity as 100 mug Se as selenomethionine. Inclusion of this high-selenium food in the diet could avoid the need for fortification or supplements to improve the selenium status of New Zealanders.

Improved glutathione status in young adult patients with cystic fibrosis supplemented with whey protein.
J Cystic Fibrosis. 2003.
The lung disease of cystic fibrosis is associated with a chronic inflammatory reaction and an over abundance of oxidants relative to antioxidants. Glutathione functions as a major frontline defense against the build-up of oxidants in the lung. We sought to increase glutathione levels in stable patients with cystic fibrosis by supplementation with a whey-based protein. Twenty-one patients who were in stable condition were randomly assigned to take a whey protein isolate (Immunocal, 10 g twice a day) or casein placebo for 3 months. After supplementation, we observed a 46% increase from baseline in the lymphocyte glutathione  levels in the supplemented group.

I came across your website while doing research on alpha lipoic acid as a precursor for glutathione. I found your research and comments to be very straightforward and well thought out, showing the pros and the cons of a particular course of action. We need more people like you out there. We also represent a product named Immunocal, which is a bonded cysteine precursor for glutathione listed in the Physician's Desk Reference. It is available with and without a prescription. This would be a great place to let people know that there is already an abundance of information published about Immunocal. This includes 30 years of research, 26 published studies, some of which are on your site, coverage in certain states by Medicare and Medicaid for certain conditions, a listing in the PDR and Pharmacist's Red Book, and 65 International Method Of Use Patents. Is there already a way to buy Immunocal through you, or do you already have a linking or referral arrangement with another Immunotec consultant? If your company would like to research further whether or not this product meets your high standards, we would be happy to answer your questions. We need more doctors like Dr. Sahelian and his team.

Supplements and herbal extracts that help make glutathione
Certain nutrients help raise tissue levels of glutathione including acetylcysteine antioxidant, methyl donors such as choline, DMG and TMG, alpha lipoic acid, polyphenols such as Pycnogenol, and vitamin B12. The mineral selenium can increase levels. The amino acids cysteine and glycine are additional options.

Nutr Res. 2013. Green tea supplementation increases glutathione and plasma antioxidant capacity in adults with the metabolic syndrome.

Effect of dietary restriction and acetylcysteine supplementation on intestinal mucosa and liver mitochondrial redox status and function in aged rats.
Exp Gerontol. 2004.
Ageing is characterized by a spread decrease of glutathione concentrations, increased protein oxidation and decreased mitochondrial NO content. Hypocaloric diet ameliorated intestinal transport and, as well as N-acetylcysteine, was effective in enhancing glutathione levels.

Q, I have read that glutathione canít absorb well into the human body as a supplement. I have read that to increase levels one must take precursors such as N-Acetyl Cysteine or L Carnitine or Alpha Lipoic Acid. Which of those amino acids would best raise oneís Glutathione levels?
   A. It's difficult to say, I have not seen good studies to know which one would increase levels the best.

I was advised by a naturopath that it is best to take glutathione together with either selenium or N-Acetyl Cysteine as either of them will assist in its utilisation. Do you know if this is the case?
   Although these two help the body make more glutathione, I am not aware that it is necessary to take them along when supplementing.

(R)-alpha-lipoic acid reverses the age-related loss in glutathione redox status in post-mitotic tissues: evidence for increased cysteine requirement for glutathione synthesis.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004.
We examined the extent and the mechanisms underlying the potential age-related changes in cerebral and myocardial glutathione status in young and old F344 rats and whether administration of (R)-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) can reverse these changes. Our results show that glutathione / GSSG ratios in the aging heart and the brain declined relative to young controls, respectively. Despite a consistent loss in glutathione redox status in both tissues, only cerebral glutathione levels declined with age. Treating old rats with LA markedly increased tissue cysteine levels and subsequently restored the cerebral glutathione levels.

The effect of polyphenolic extract from pine bark, Pycnogenol on the level of glutathione in children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Redox Rep. 2006.
Pycnogenol, an extract from the pine bark, consists of bioflavonoids, catechins, procyanidins and phenolic acids. It acts as powerful antioxidant, chelating agent; it stimulates the activities of some enzymes, like SOD, eNOS, and exhibits other biological activities. The aim of this trial was to investigate the influence of administered Pycnogenol or placebo on the level of reduced and oxidized glutathione in children suffering from ADHD and on total antioxidant status. One month of administration (1 mg/kg body weight/day) caused a significant decrease in oxidized glutathione and a highly significant increase in glutathione levels in comparison to a group of patients taking a placebo. Pycnogenol administration normalizes total antioxidant status of ADHD children.

Herbs and substances found in plants that protect or increase levels

Anti-oxidant effects of cinnamon bark and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) seeds in rats fed high fat diet.
Indian J Exp Biol. 1999.
To gain insight into the antioxidant effect of cinnamon and cardamom hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid conjugated dienes were studied in rats fed high fat diet along with cinnamon or cardamom. The antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be significantly enhanced whereas glutathione content was markedly restored in rats fed a fat diet with spices.

Polyphenols and glutathione synthesis regulation.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2005.
Polyphenols in food plants are a versatile group of phytochemicals with many potentially beneficial activities in terms of disease prevention. We recently showed that dietary plant polyphenols, namely, the flavonoids, modulate expression of an important enzyme in both cellular antioxidant defenses and detoxification of xenobiotics, ie, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. This enzyme is rate limiting in the synthesis of the most important endogenous antioxidant in cells, glutathione. We showed in vitro that flavonoids increase expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and, by using a unique transgenic reporter mouse strain, we showed increased expression in vivo, with a concomitant increase in the intracellular glutathione concentrations in muscles. Because glutathione is important in redox regulation of transcription factors and enzymes for signal transduction, our results suggest that polyphenol-mediated regulation of glutathione alters cellular processes. Evidently, glutathione is important in many diseases, and regulation of intracellular glutathione concentrations may be one mechanism by which diet influences disease development. The aim of this review is to discuss some of the mechanisms involved in the glutathione-mediated, endogenous, cellular antioxidant defense system, how its possible modulation by dietary polyphenols such as flavonoids may influence disease development, and how it can be studied with in vivo imaging.

Curcumin treatment alleviates the effects of glutathione depletion in vitro and in vivo: therapeutic implications for Parkinson's disease explained via in silico studies.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2008.
An important biochemical feature of presymptomatic
Parkinson's disease is a significant depletion of the thiol antioxidant glutathione in these neurons resulting in oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ultimately cell death. We report that treatment of dopaminergic neuronal cells and mice with curcumin restores depletion of glutathione levels, protects against protein oxidation, and preserves mitochondrial complex I activity which normally is impaired due to glutathione loss.

Will glutathione supplements help those with Parkinson's disease?
   I have not seen research testing glutathione supplements for Parkinson's disease, but curcumin is an interesting option in terms of restoring glutathione levels.

Glutathione busters
The frequent use of acetaminophen (Tylenol) depletes glutathione peroxidase levels.

Recommendations and review
There appears to be a feedback inhibition in glutathione synthesis. This means that if levels are excessively increased with the help of nutrients, the body may decrease its natural production.
   Glutathione is sold in pills with dosages ranging from 50 to 250 mg. There are some inconsistencies in the medical literature on the ability of glutathione to enter tissues and cells when ingested orally, and the possibility of feedback inhibition, but a 2014 study showed that oral supplementation does lead to an increase in tissue levels. Acetylcysteine is a good alternative since it can help make more glutathione.

Eur J Nutr. 2014. Randomized controlled trial of oral glutathione supplementation on body stores of glutathione. Glutathione, the most abundant endogenous antioxidant, is a critical regulator of oxidative stress and immune function. While oral GSH has been shown to be bioavailable in laboratory animal models, its efficacy in humans has not been established. Our objective was to determine the long-term effectiveness of oral GSH supplementation on body stores of GSH in healthy adults. A 6-month randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of oral GSH (250 or 1,000 mg / day) on GSH levels in blood, erythrocytes, plasma, lymphocytes and exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was conducted in 54 non-smoking adults. Secondary outcomes on a subset of subjects included a battery of immune markers. GSH levels in blood increased after 1, 3 and 6 months versus baseline at both doses. At 6 months, mean GSH levels increased 30-35 % in erythrocytes, plasma and lymphocytes and 260 % in buccal cells in the high-dose group. GSH levels increased 17 and 29 % in blood and erythrocytes, respectively, in the low-dose group. In most cases, the increases were dose and time dependent, and levels returned to baseline after a 1-month washout period. A reduction in oxidative stress in both GSH dose groups was indicated by decreases in the oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio in whole blood after 6 months. Natural killer cytotoxicity increased >twofold in the high-dose group versus placebo at 3 months. These findings show, for the first time, that daily consumption of GSH supplements was effective at increasing body compartment stores of GSH.
    This study was supported by Kyowa Hakko USA, Inc. and Kyowa Hakko Bio. Ltd. Setria Glutathione can be found in select supplement manufacturers.

Side effects, safety, danger, toxicity
No significant side effects have yet been reported in medical journals with supplementation of these pills.

Q. I have been taking reduced glutathione for about 2 weeks off and on, I Love love this product but my side effect is bronchial restriction. Is that due to the sulfites in this product. What other glutathione can I take? I am an asthmatic.
   A. I have not seen enough human studies to know what adverse effects result from the use of such products.

What happens if levels are low?
Glutathione deficiency contributes to oxidative stress, which plays a key role in aging and the worsening of many diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, liver disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, HIV, AIDS, cancer, heart attack, and diabetes. The concentration of glutathione declines with age and in some age-related diseases.

Cystic fibrosis
Inhaling a compound that is normally produced in the lungs but is lacking in people with cystic fibrosis seems to be helpful for such patients. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic condition, characterized by thick mucus build-up in the lungs as well as other organs such as bile ducts and intestines. People with the disorder suffer from difficulty breathing, frequent bouts of pneumonia, and numerous other afflictions. The secretion of a peptide called glutathione by lung cells is impaired in cystic fibrosis, and there is good evidence to suggest that the lack of glutathione in lung fluid plays a key role in the chronic inflammation and infection that occurs. Previous studies have investigated inhaled glutathione as a treatment for cystic fibrosis. The current study is different from the others in that it compared active treatment with inactive placebo treatment, and involved a higher daily dose of glutathione over a longer period. In the study, 19 patients with cystic fibrosis were randomized to receive inhaled glutathione or placebo for 8 weeks. Glutathione-treated patients experienced an increase in peak expiratory airflow whereas the comparison group experienced a drop.  When asked to rate their condition on a 5-point scale, the participants given glutathione reported significantly more improvement than those given the placebo. Also, inhaled glutathione therapy was well tolerated, and the frequency and nature of side effects was similar in the two groups. Chest, January 2007.

I have cystic fibrosis and would like to take glutathione supplements to improve peak expiratory airflow, could you please tell me what to do, i am a little confused. Are there many types of glutathione supplements and i need to take a particular one, in which case whats the name of the one i should take? What works best oral or inhaled, i would prefer oral but would that increase my Peak expiratory flows or not? Are there any glutathione side effects? If glutathione will not increase my peak expiratory flow would you know of any other supplement which will increase my peak expiratory flow?
   As of 2016, I am not aware of studies with oral glutathione supplements in the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

Heart disease
Low blood glutathione levels in acute myocardial infarction.
Indian J Med Sci. 2003.
Erythrocyte glutathione levels were determined in 22 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 15 age matched healthy volunteers served as control. Glutathione levels were significantly decreased in AMI as compared to control. Also, total cholesterol and triglycerides were higher is AMI subjects.

AIDS: Several recent scientific papers have found a correlation between glutathione levels and viral activity for hepatitis B and C. When viral load increases, glutathione decreases. Researchers from Germany report that adding N-acetyl cysteine to HBV producing cells lines can reduce hepatitis viral load 50 fold. Glutathione is used by the liver to help break down toxins. Patients who have chronic infection for more than 90 days should ask their physicians to check their Glutathione levels. An amino acid, L-Glutamine, can be used with alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine to increase levels. Chlorophyll also offers benefits to people with hepatitis and other infections.

Multiple sclerosis
Br J Biomed Sci. 2013. Glutathione in multiple sclerosis. MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, characterised mainly as an autoimmune neurodegenerative disorder. Its cause is unknown but multifactorial; however, some studies suggest that oxidative stress may be one of the sources, or a consequence of the disease, from loss of oxidant/antioxidant balance. This review studies glutathione, one of the most important agents of the endogenous antioxidant defence system, protecting cells from damage caused by oxidative stress. It evaluates glutathione and the enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in various forms and stages of the disease. Analysis of a literature search suggests that the scientific community is not unanimous in its views, so more studies are required of patients with different forms of the disease and its manifestations, taking into account that the body functions as a whole and reacts in a compensatory manner. It would seem imperative to achieve a consensus on the pathogenesis responsible for severe disability, and explore sensitive biomarkers of its progression and indicators of oxidative stress. It is also important to promote the development of new therapies, with more studies on other substances such as acrolein, lipoic acid and dimethyl fumarate.

Radon exposure
Gene variants that result in decreased amounts of glutathione -S- transferase M1 (GSTM1), may raise the risk of lung cancer related to radon exposure. Such variants also seem to increase the cancer-causing effect of secondhand smoke. Both radon and secondhand smoke are thought to promote carcinogenesis through the formation of reactive oxygen species. GSTM1 is an enzyme that detoxifies these species and their derivatives.

In aerobic cells, free radicals are constantly produced mostly as reactive oxygen species. Once produced, free radicals are removed by antioxidant defenses including the enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Reactive oxygen species, including nitric oxide and related species, commonly exert a series of useful physiological effects. However, imbalance between prooxidant and antioxidant defenses in favor of prooxidants results in oxidative stress. This results in damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Alone or in combination with primary factors, free radicals are involved in the cause of hundreds of diseases.

Q. Have you heard about glutathione eye drops as a treatment for cataracts? I am a huge believer in taking glutathione in powder form orally which has helped my allergies tremendously. I just had one cataract removed surgically and have the other eye with just the beginnings of a cataract.
   I am not familiar with glutathione eye drops and don't have experience using this product.

I heard about glutathione that after a couple of months taking it , it can make your skin whiter and healthy. is this true?
   I have not come across any research that says glutathione supplements taken orally improve skin. Fish oils are good options for healthy skin.

Q. I was doing some research on glutathione and came across your article. One of your concerns was the difficulty in getting into the cells where is matters the most. I am not sure if you are aware of Dr. Kellerís work with MaxGXL or not. I have decided to join the team. Here is what Dr. John C. Nelson has to say about this product and it's inventor. ďThis product in my opinion, MaxGXL, represents the single most important breakthrough in health that I will witness in my life time. I believe it will revolutionize, change, and transform the practice of medicine world-wide and make Dr Robert Keller more famous than Jonas Salk who created the polio vaccine.Ē
   A. I get turned off when I hear such marketing pitches.

Q. Have you heard of MaxGXL created by immunologist and medical researcher Dr. Robert H. Keller, MD, MS, FACP. He has developed a product that makes your body increase its glutathione levels. It is in a pill form. I am a Max International Independent Associate.
   A. I did a search for MaxGXL in Medline in June 2008 and did not find any references or any studies regarding this product.

Q. Was reading Q and A on your glutathione peroxidase website and went looking for MaxGXL. Thought you might be interested in what I found and to know the cost is $85. for a 28 day supply but if it's bought on the autoship plan one can get it for $66. Think the person that wrote that question was smart enough to know anyone reading it would check into it and he might have another customer!

Q. Diagnosed with beginning cataracts by two different ophtomologists a few years back. Read your studies on L-Glutathione and took a supplement. Conditions of haloes around my eyes when viewing lights at night -- which I had for months -- disappeared within two weeks. Conditions have not returned. I have no doubt L-Gluthathione did the trick. I took -- and still take about twice a week now -- the GNC 50 mg vegetarian brand. I chew it to absorb it better, and wash it down with water. The taste is not that bad. No other benefits or side effects noted.
   A. Interesting.

Q. What is the best way to increase glutathione levels? taking r- alpha lipoic acid or n-acetylcysteine, and at what dosage?
   A. There is no easy answer to this since studies regarding ways to increase glutathione through supplement use are few. To complicate matters, it may be possible to have a short term effect from a supplement, but we don't know whether the glutathione increase would persist over time. A practical option is to alternate the use of r alpha lipoic acid with acetylcysteine every other day and to take 2 days off each week.

Since in the article it says it is good for liver detoxification, would a glutathione supplement help? I have fatty liver, but very very mild NASH Non alcoholic fatty liver. My cCholesterol is down, my weight is down?
   I have not come across any evidence that taking a glutathione supplement is able to enter individual cells in the body to be effective.

Q. I recently received a massage from someone who used glutathione mixed with coconut oil. he also used a sonar device. he said that the glutathione would penetrate into the body and work with neuro peptides to aid in reducing inflammation and release of muscle contraction. is this possible?
   A. We find this hard to believe until research studies confirm it.

Q. I am a naturopathic doctor and was reading your comments on glutathione. It is generally accepted that glutathione has little effect when ingested orally. I remember seeing the result of Dr. Perlmutter when he injected glutathione into Parkinsonís patients. At a functional medicine conference, hundreds of doctors stood and cheered when he showed the video. I was one of them. So I am aware of 4 methods of getting glutathione into the body. One is intravenously. The second is a 500 mg suppository. The third is a liposome cream. The last is a glutathione spray that is developed by a lab that I use. I will also be using the suppository and experimenting with the others as well. I deal with a compounding pharmacy for the intravenous, cream and suppositories. It is exceptional to be able to get glutathione into the body in a form it can use. It is definitely worth it.
   A. I look forward to seeing research on glutathione used by non-oral routes.

Q. Firstly i would like to say your articles on your website are very interesting and i read them regularly ever since i founded your website. I do have a question though, regarding glutathione levels in the body, I read your informative article on glutathione and in the article you have written that whey protein may increase glutathione levels, i did some research on whey products and have seen that all whey products have Amino acids in them, does this mean that if i were to take an Amino Acid complex then i would be able to raise my glutathione levels?
   A. Whey protein supplements contain various proteins which likely influence glutathione levels. It is possible that certain amino acids do so also, but it is a complicated issue since there are dozens of amino acids and it is difficult to know which ones, in what combination, and in what quantities influence levels of glutathione. Rather than focusing on raising glutathione levels, once should take a more comprehensive approach to improving overall health in various ways including diet, exercise, deep sleep, etc.

You wrote 'various herbs -- for instance cinnamon and cardomom -- have compounds that can restore healthy levels of glutathione." Does this mean that by taking cinnamon or cardomom you can have normal healthy levels of glutathione if you don't have healthy levels?
   Many herbs are helpful in restoring or helping increase levels of natural antioxidants in the body. The use of cinnamon and cardamom are likely to increase levels of natural glutathione in the boy, but it is difficult to say how much will increase and how much of these herbs has to be ingested for this purpose.

Q. What is the best supplement or food for restoring natural glutathione levels in the body?
   A. I am not aware of specific research with the thousands of foods and supplements that are available to determine which is the best food or supplement to increase glutathione levels. There are many natural antioxidants in the body in addition to glutathione and it would be better to focus on an overall healthy diet that helps with all aspects of health rather than one antioxidant system in the body. Acetylcysteine has been studied as a good supplement for raising glutathione levels but there are many more that have not been studied but are likely to have similar benefits. Green foods, spices, and vegetables are excellent choices to raise antioxidant levels, and berries are excellent choices, too.

Can you please provide information on glutathione. I read from some articles that this is natural supplement to clear your skin and also provide whitening of skin tone. Is this true. If so how much glutathione dosage can you take per day. Can you get toxin or overdose on this glutathione supplement? One of the manufacturer on the website says that this problem definitely makes your skin lighter and smoother. What are the ingredients for this product. Also, does the claim for skin whitening is a myth or true?
    I am not aware of any studies that glutathione supplements are helpful as a treatment for a skin disease or making skin whiter.

I am aware that supplementing with oral glutathione is not a good option since it may not enter the cells where it is needed. I have seen two different forms of it on the market that claim to be superior than the reduced form. They are saying it is microencapsulated and withstand the stomach and intestinal enzymes from destroying it. The two names that I found were the Glutathione Pleolyposome ( a Google search turned up nothing on it ) and the other was Liposome-Enclosed Glutathione. Liposome-Enclosed Glutathione and Glutathione Pleolyposome have their own website gushing about its superiority over the reduced form. Are you familiar with either two and what is your opinions on it? Better / worse, waste of money?
    I am not familiar with these products and have not come across human studies regarding their use, so I remain skeptical until shown data that support their claimed benefits.

I started taking Glutathione reduced 500 mg on 2nd April 2010 after extensive reading on the benefits vs side effects of this supplement because I am recovering from a 2nd blood clot to my leg in 6 months and need a natural replacement to Heparin injections, to be replaced by warfarin later this year. I have been on the Heparin injections for about 9 months. The hospital and my GP aren't happy about it, but because I am also trying for a baby, they were forced to keep me on the injections for longer than originally planned. In the 2 weeks that I have taken glutathione, there has been a marked inprovement to the leg; in fact it has been so significant that this week, I have only took the injections every other day. Apart from the colour of the leg (which is still quite dark), there has been a marked improvement in the size, flexibility and general well being of the leg. I am more energetic and no longer lethargic. I sleep less. My leg is in its best condition for 1 year. My eyes are back to being bright instead of red. I have also lost 3 kilos (which was a shock to me). My question is around a pregnancy and the continued use of the supplement. Is it possible to remain of this supplement while being pregnant as it would be preferable to injections? Could a fetus be affected?
    We are not aware of such studies to know the safety of a glutathione supplement during pregnancy.

 Can you comment on something I read on another web page: "Glutathione supplements donít help much. Unbeknownst to the people who buy them, they get inactivated by stomach acid."
   We are not sure about the stomach acid inactivation part yet, we'll need more studies to confirm it, but the overall benefits of such supplementation remains to be determined.

Most articles I have read seem to indicate that Glutathione in a pill form is not bio available. Are there any studies the show that the SOURCE NATURALS Sublingual Glutathione actually gets absorbed into the blood?
   A. As of 2016 I have not seen such studies.

Emails about Immunocal
Q. I read with interest your info on glutathione. You refer to a clinical study on CF patients using a whey protein to increase intracellular glutathione. I believe that one such whey protein is known as Immunocal and is available as a supplement and something you may want to investigate. There are clinical studies which have been peer reviewed and published in medical journals on Immunocal which has shown to raise intracellular glutathione levels. Since you show a keen interest in finding a supplement that has been scientifically documented to raise glutathione, Immunocal is a good option. If Dr. Sahelian is interested, I can arrange for a conference call with one of the Doctors from Immunotec Research.

Q. Your website came up as I was doing some research on Glutathione. I have been consuming a Glutathione boosting supplement called Immunocal for about 11 years. The reason for my note that due to my extensive research, I am aware that Immunocal is the only supplement patented and clinically proven to actually donate the precursor, cysteine, that then joins with the plentiful glycine and glutamate in our bodies promoting glutathione synthesis in the cells. Since GSH is an endogenous antioxidant, it cannot be consumed orally because it will be broken down in our digestive system before it ever gets to be delivered intracellularly. Immunocal is actually listed in the Pharma PDR. It also enjoys the endorsement of a Nobel Prize Winning Doctor. Google 2008 Nobel Prize Winner Medicine Immunocal.
   A. I have found this article published in a medical journal:

Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2012. Immunocal and preservation of glutathione as a novel neuroprotective strategy for degenerative disorders of the nervous system. This review discusses the capacity of a cystine-rich, whey protein supplement Immunocal to enhance the de novo synthesis of GSH in neurons, and highlights its potential as a novel therapeutic approach to mitigate the oxidative damage that underlies the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases.

Source Naturals, Glutathione, Reduced, Sublingual Complex, Orange Flavored, 50 mg, 100 Tablets
buy Glutathione supplement
Reduced Glutathione Sublingual Complex, 50 mg
Orange Flavored Sublingual
Dietary Supplement

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Supplement Facts
Serving Size: 1 Tablet
  Amount Per Serving %DV
Total Carbohydrates 1 g <1%*
Riboflavin (as 2.25 mg flavin mononucleotide (Coenzymated) 1.6 mg 94%
Molybdenum (as molybdenum chelate) 120 mcg 160%
L-Glutathione (reduced) 50 mg Ü
*Percent Daily Values (%DV) are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
ÜDaily Value not established.

Suggested Use: 1 Glutathione tablet a few times a week. Place the tablet under the tongue and allow to dissolve slowly, altering its position to avoid prolonged contact with the same area.

This product contains glutathione (GSH), a key element of the liver's detoxifying process. Molybdenum, a trace mineral that activates the enzymes aldehyde oxidase and sulfite oxidase, may provide necessary nutritional support for chemically sensitive individuals. Coenzymated vitamin B-2 (riboflavin) is the precursor for FAD, a coenzyme that recycles used GSH. The sublingual form is absorbed directly into the blood stream, via the blood vessels under the tongue and in the cheeks, allowing for quick entry into the system.

Supplement Facts:
Serving Size 1 Tablet
Riboflavin (as 2.25 mg flavin mononucleotide (Coenzymated) 1.6 mg 90%
Molybdenum (as molybdenum chelate) 120 mcg 160%
L-Glutathione (reduced) 50 mg