Kaempferol information and medical disease benefit
Feb 22 2014 by Ray Sahelian, M.D.

Kaempferol is one of the important flavonoids. As with most flavonoids, it has antioxidant properties. You can find kaempferol in many berries, including strawberry and cranberry, along with tea. Other flavonoids include quercetin and myricetin. There are numerous plant substances that have positive influences on the human body, for instance xanthones found in mangosteen.

Kaempferol and heart disease
Most studies indicate that plant flavonoids may offer protection against heart disease. A new study which followed more than 66,000 U.S. women shows no link between a woman's overall intake of flavonoids and her risk of suffering a heart attack or dying of heart disease over the next 12 years. Data from the Nurses' Health Study, which began in 1976, enrolling more than 120,000 female nurses between the ages of 30 and 55. This study focused on 66,360 women who answered detailed questionnaires on their diet habits in 1990, 1994 and 1998. Based on those responses, the researchers were able to estimate study participants' intake of two major flavonoid subtypes -- flavonols and flavones. They found no association between the women's overall intake of these compounds in 1990 and their risk of suffering a heart attack or dying of heart disease over the next 12 years. However, women who consumed higher amounts of a particular flavonol called kaempferol were less likely to die of heart disease than women with the lowest intakes. The researchers think kaempferol has a particular cardiovascular benefit. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2007.
   Comments: There are so many variables when analyzing epidemiological data that I really don't like to isolate one compound out of thousands in the diet and focus on it. Each flavonoid has its own benefit and it is still a great idea to consume a number of different vegetables and fruits. There are other supplements that are helpful in those who have a heart condition including Coq10.

Colon carcinoma
Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Feb 17. Mechanisms Underlying Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells.

Food
Absorption of kaempferol from endive, a source of kaempferol-3-glucuronide, in humans.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004.
Four healthy males and four healthy females. Kaempferol, from a relatively low dose (9 mg), was absorbed from endive with a mean maximum plasma concentration of 0.1 microM, at a time of 5.8 h, indicating absorption from the distal section of the small intestine and/or the colon. Although a 7.5-fold interindividual variation between the highest and lowest maximum plasma concentration was observed, most individuals showed remarkably consistent pharmacokinetic profiles. This contrasts with profiles for other flavonoids that are absorbed predominantly from the large intestine (eg rutin). An average of 1.9% of the kaempferol dose was excreted in 24 h. Most subjects also showed an early absorption peak, probably corresponding to kaempferol-3-glucoside, present at a level of 14% in the endive. Kaempferol-3-glucuronide was the major compound detected in plasma and urine. Quercetin was not detected in plasma or urine indicating a lack of phase I hydroxylation of kaempferol, which is absorbed more efficiently than quercetin in humans even at low oral doses. The predominant form in plasma is a 3-glucuronide conjugate, and interindividual variation in absorption and excretion is low, suggesting that urinary kaempferol could be used as a biomarker for exposure.

Content of the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in 25 edible berries.
J Agric Food Chem. 1999.
The amounts of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol aglycons in 25 edible berries were analyzed. Sixteen species of cultivated berries and nine species of wild berries were collected in Finland in 1997. Quercetin was found in all berries, the contents being highest in bog whortleberry (158 mg/kg, fresh weight), lingonberry (74 and 146 mg/kg), cranberry (83 and 121 mg/kg), chokeberry (89 mg/kg), sweet rowan (85 mg/kg), rowanberry (63 mg/kg), sea buckthorn berry (62 mg/kg), and crowberry (53 and 56 mg/kg). Amounts between 14 and 142 mg/kg of myricetin were detected in cranberry, black currant, crowberry, bog whortleberry, blueberries, and bilberry. Kaempferol was detected only in gooseberries (16 and 19 mg/kg) and strawberries (5 and 8 mg/kg). Total contents of these flavonols (100-263 mg/kg) in cranberry, bog whortleberry, lingonberry, black currant, and crowberry were higher than those in the commonly consumed fruits or vegetables, except for onion, kale, and broccoli.

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