March 19 2017
As of 2017, no new studies could be found.
A pill, Called Tabex, developed in Bulgaria 40 years ago during the Soviet era may help those addicted to smoking kick the habit. It is made from laburnum seeds that contain a natural nicotine substitute. Researchers said the seed was discovered when much of the Soviet Union's drug research was farmed out to Bulgaria. Russian soldiers referred to it as "fake tobacco."
J Nat Prod. 2013. Laburnamine, a natural selective ligand and partial agonist for the α4β2 nicotinic receptor subtype. Laburnamine, a rare alkaloid extracted from Laburnum anagyroides seeds, was shown to bind with high affinity to the α4β2 nicotinic receptor subtype.
Clin Toxicol. 2009. Nicotinic plant poisoning.
National Poisons Centre, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described.
This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine.
These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination.C Following acute exposure, symptoms typically follow a biphasic pattern. The early phase consists of nicotinic cholinergic stimulation resulting in symptoms such as abdominal pain, hypertension, tachycardia, and tremors. The second inhibitory phase is delayed and often heralded by hypotension, bradycardia, and dyspnea, finally leading to coma and respiratory failure.
Cytisus Decumbens? It's a plant