Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide supplement health benefit, dosage, and side effects
Dosage of 2.5 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg, and new 20 mg tablet
February 1 2017

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is abbreviated as NADH. It is an activated form of the B vitamin niacin. In high school biology class you probably studied the Krebs cycle and how energy in the form of ATP is derived from sugars, amino acids, and fats. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is the coenzyme that helps in this complicated process of energy extraction.
  The body's requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthesis can be met either with dietary tryptophan or with less than 20 mg of daily niacin, which consists of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide. There is growing evidence that greater rates of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthesis may be beneficial to protect against neurological degeneration and provide other physiological needs.

Making energy
Our primary source of fuel is through fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in our diet. After digestion in the stomach, foodstuffs are absorbed into the blood and circulate to various tissues and cells where they are broken down into even smaller particles. One of these is a two-carbon molecule known as acetyl. Enzymes help break down these fats, proteins, and carbohydrates into acetyl and they then help extract the final energy from acetyl. Enzymes also need helpers, and these helpers are called coenzymes. Most of the coenzymes are partly made from vitamins, such as vitamins E, C, lipoate, and riboflavin (vitamin B2). NADH, known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a coenzyme, partly made from nicotinamide (vitamin B3).
  
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, through a series of reactions with acetyl and oxygen, is able to produce energy. This energy is in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Therefore, a good supply of NADH optimizes energy production in the body. Another function of NADH is its ability to help transform an amino acid called tyrosine into the important brain chemical dopamine. Dopamine is involved in mood, energy, sexual drive, concentration, memory and muscle movement.
   NADH is normally found in meat, fish, and poultry. The content
in fruits and vegetables is minimal.

The NADH claims
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide nutritional supplement was introduced to the US health market in 1995. There are claims that Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide can improve memory, athletic performance, slows the aging process, and is helpful in a variety of conditions including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, and overall lack of energy.
   A small number of short term studies done with an oral form of NADH have shown slight to moderate benefits in regards to depression, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. An eight-week double blind study done at Georgetown University Medical Center found thirty percent of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome to benefit from 10 mg of NADH compared to eight percent of the controls.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide may also be helpful in treating jet lag (see below). Birkmayer Laboratories of Vienna, Austria who organized all of these studies, are also involved in promoting their trademarked NADH product.

Side effects, safety
Reports of
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide side effects from the use of 2.5 mg are rare. Higher dosages can sometimes lead to NADH side effects of insomnia, anxiety, fatigue, and overstimulation. George, a 42 year-old lawyer from Philadelphia says, I like the 2.5 mg dose of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide because of the alertness it provides. However, when I take 5 mg or more, it makes me too stimulated, almost with a panicky feeling. As more individuals start taking this nutrient, we may come across additional reports of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide side effects. The risk of NADH side effects increase when this supplement is combined with other stimulants. A few patients have found that high dosages used daily for prolonged periods led to mood swings, anxiety, and sleeplessness which resolved when the NADH was stopped. Until we learn more about the long term side effect of NADH, I do not recommend its use on a daily basis for prolonged periods.
   One user noticed that
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide helped her chronic fatigue, but things didnt go well when she stopped. Betty, a 36 year-old homemaker from Houston, says, I have chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and was taking 10 mg of NADH daily. I know it really helped my energy level and mood. But I began to have stomach upset from it and stopped for a few days. I then fell quickly into a very bad CFS "crash," the worst one in months. I recommended that Betty only take 2.5 mg of NADH every other day. I dont think we should rely on one nutrient to solve CFS.

Antioxidant benefit
Antioxidant activity of
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and its analogue--an in vitro study.
J Biochem Mol Biol. 2004.
Results indicate that
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide can inhibit lipid peroxidation despite being hydrophilic. Nevertheless, membrane penetration is an important factor and limits its antioxidant activity.

Alzheimer's disease
Treatment of Alzheimer's disease with stabilized oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide : a randomized, double-blind study.
Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2004.
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of stabilized oral reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide on cognitive functioning in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme that plays a key role in cellular energy production and stimulates dopamine production. In previous trials NADH has been shown to improve cognitive functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease, depression and AD. The present trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled, matched-pairs, double-blind, 6-month clinical study. Patients with probable AD were randomized to receive either stabilized oral NADH (10 mg/day) or placebo. Twelve pairs of subjects were matched for age and baseline total score on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS). After 6 months of treatment, subjects treated with Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide showed no evidence of progressive cognitive deterioration and had significantly higher total scores on the MDRS compared with subjects treated with placebo. Analysis of MDRS subscales revealed significantly better performance by Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide subjects on measures of verbal fluency, visual-constructional ability and a trend to better performance on a measure of abstract verbal reasoning. There were no differences between groups in measures of attention, memory, or in clinician ratings of dementia severity. Consistent with earlier studies, the present findings support Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a treatment for AD.

Jet lag treatment
Stabilized NADH (ENADA) improves jet lag-induced cognitive performance deficit.
Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002.
Current remedies for jet lag (phototherapy, melatonin, stimulant, and sedative medications) are limited in efficacy and practicality. The efficacy of a stabilized, sublingual form of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, ENADAlert, Menuco Corp.) as a countermeasure for jet lag was examined. Because
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide increases cellular production of ATP and facilitates dopamine synthesis, it may counteract the effects of jet lag on cognitive functioning and sleepiness. Thirty-five healthy, employed subjects participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Training and baseline testing were conducted on the West Coast before subjects flew overnight to the East Coast, where they would experience a 3-hour time difference. Upon arrival, individuals were randomly assigned to received either 20 mg of sublingual stabilized Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or identical placebo tablets. All participants completed computer-administered tests (including Cog Screen) to assess changes in cognitive functioning, mood, and sleepiness in the morning and afternoon. Jet lag resulted in increased sleepiness for over half the participants and deterioration of cognitive functioning for approximately one third. The morning following the flight, subjects experienced lapses of attention in addition to disruptions in working memory, divided attention, and visual perceptual speed. Individuals who received NADH performed significantly better on 4 cognitive test measures and reported less sleepiness compared with those who received placebo. No adverse effects were observed with ENADA NADH treatment. Stabilized ENADA Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide significantly reduced jet lag-induced negative cognitive effects and sleepiness, was easily administered, and was found to have no side effects.

Testimonial
Q. I have been taking 50 to 300mg of 5-HTP for about 2 months at bedtime to help my sleep and depression. It definitely improved my mood but I still felt tired and achy so I added 5 mg of
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide first thing in the morning to my regime for one week so far. I've had a few serious bouts of depression after adding the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide but a lot more energy. I find it's better if I alternate between the two. Also, I've become very constipated after taking the 5-HTP. Reading your website, and from experience of reducing the amount and consistency of 5-HTP, the grogginess is less. For your info, I found that taking 5-HTP actually increased my libido but that I've already become tolerant to that benefit. I find it relaxes me and reduces my negative thinking greatly. Reading your website, I'm pretty amazed at some of the horrific negative affects it has had on some people.

How fast does it work
Q. How soon does
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide have an effect?
   A.There is a sense of alertness and wellbeing within an hour or two of taking
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide supplement on an empty stomach in the morning. Most people notice the effects within hours.

Dosage
Thanks so much for originally introducing me to
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide through your literature. I last took NADH 2 years ago. I am now trying to find the same form - 2.5mg Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide sublingual tablets. Do you know who manufactures it? I'd prefer not to take the Source Naturals tablet, due to a very sensitive stomach. Also, I had such a good prior experience with the sublingual.
   A google search for
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2.5 mg sublingual can provide several choices.

I understand that Source Naturals
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 20 mg is available. Do you think 20 mg is helpful and safe?
    We don't see the need to take more than 5 or 10 mg of
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide supplement a few times a month. We are concerned about side effects with a NADH 20 mg dosage.

Product sold online
Purchase NADH Enada, 5 mg, 30 Tablets - Source Naturals
Suggested Use: One Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tablet a few times a week in the morning, on an empty stomach, with water. Wait 10 to 30 minutes before eating.

Please note that the raw material for this brand is made by Menuco. 
Enada NADH Supplement Facts:
ENADA NADH - 5 mg
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