Phaseolus vulgaris
January 20 2016

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a major grain legume consumed worldwide for its edible seeds and pods.

Food Chem. 2013 Nov 15. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracted saponins and flavonols from germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Flavonoids and saponins from common beans have been widely studied due to their bioactivity. This research evaluated the effect of germination of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines of saponins and flavonoids extracted from seed coats, cotyledons and sprouts. Principal component analysis was performed to achieve punctual associations between the black bean saponins and flavonoids concentrations to the antioxidant capacity and the antiproliferative activities. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of extracts were higher when obtained from seed coats, mainly from the 3rd germination day. The extracts obtained from seed coats after 3 and 5 germination days inhibited all cancer cell lines proliferation with no cytotoxicity against control cells. Genistein was related with the activity against mammary cancer cells but flavonols and group B saponins were more related with hepatic and colon cancers. Non-glycosilated flavonols were related with antioxidant capacity.

Weight loss
The management of overweight may include the use of dietary supplements targeted to favor the increase of the satiation associated with a decrease in blood glucose and lipid levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dietary supplementation with an extract from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus (artichoke leaf extract), on satiation, glucose and lipid pattern. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 39 overweight subjects (20 supplemented group, 19 placebo group) for 2 months. The modification of satiation, by Haber's scale, was the primary end-point, and the variation of the glucose and lipid pattern, of the anthropometric parameters and of the psychodynamic tests score were the secondary end-points. At the end of treatment, the net change of the Haber's mean score increased significantly in the intervention group. The net change of the glycaemia and of the dietary restriction score of the three factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ), were reduced significantly only in the intervention group. Moreover, in the supplemented group, the homeostasis model assessment, the body mass index and the susceptibility-to-hunger score of the TFEQ, decreased significantly after intervention; these parameters did not change in the controls. This treatment appears potentially useful in the management of overweight and high blood sugar level conditions.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014. Beanblock « (standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris) in mildly overweight subjects: a pilot study. This study evaluates the efficacy of Beanblock «, a standardized extract of Phaseolus vulgaris L., on weight control in healthy overweight subjects on a weight management plan that combined lifestyle and dietary advice. Beanblock, in association with a health management plan, was useful for weight control in mildly overweight healthy subjects.

Phytother Res. 2011. Appetite Control and Glycaemia Reduction in Overweight Subjects treated with a Combination of Two Highly Standardized Extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus.
Department of Health Sciences, Section of Human Nutrition, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona, Pavia, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

The treatment for 60 days with a combination of twostandardized extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney beans) and Cynara scolymus (artichoke) is efficacious in increasing the feeling of satiety in a group of adult overweight patients of either sex, compared with the placebo.

A Dietary supplement containing standardized Phaseolus vulgaris extract influences body composition of overweight men and women.
Int J Med Sci. 2007; Celleno L, Tolaini MV, D'Amore A, Perricone NV, Preuss HG. Cosmetic Research Center, dell'UniversitÓ Cattolica di Roma, Rome, Italy.
So-called "starch blockers" are listed among natural weight loss supplements. Theoretically, they may promote weight loss by interfering with the breakdown of complex carbohydrates thereby reducing, or at least slowing, the digestive availability of carbohydrate-derived calories and/or by providing resistant starches to the lower gastrointestinal tract. The present research study examines a dietary supplement containing 445 mg of Phaseolus vulgaris extract derived from the white kidney bean, previously shown to inhibit the activity of the digestive enzyme alpha amylase, on body composition of overweight human subjects. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 60 pre-selected, slightly overweight volunteers, whose weight had been essentially stable for at least six months. The volunteers were divided into two groups, homogeneous for age, gender, and body weight. The test product containing Phaseolus vulgaris extract and the placebo were taken one tablet per day for 30 consecutive days before a main meal rich in carbohydrates. Each subject's body weight, fat and non-fat mass, skin fold thickness, and waist/hip/thigh circumferences were measured. After 30 days, subjects receiving Phaseolus vulgaris extract with a carbohydrate-rich, 2000- to 2200-calorie diet had significantly greater reduction of body weight, BMI, fat mass, adipose tissue thickness, and waist,/hip/ thigh circumferences while maintaining lean body mass compared to subjects receiving placebo. The results indicate that Phaseolus vulgaris extract produces significant decrements in body weight and suggest decrements in fat mass in the face of maintained lean body mass.

Research
The Phaseolus vulgaris dry extract, containing the alpha amylase inhibitor and phytohaemagglutinin in established ratios, was prepared through aqueous extraction and alcohol precipitation from the common bean. The extract is characterized by a standardized composition of ≥6% (w/w) alpha amylase inhibitor, with inhibiting activity ≥1100 U/mg, and phytohaemoagglutinin (haemoagglutinating activity≤30 HAU/mg).

Planta. 1971. Changes in proteolytic enzyme activities and transformation of nitrogenous compounds in the germinating seeds of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Hydrolytic activity towards synthetic substrates and denatured proteins was measured in the extracts of the seeds of kidney bean at various stages of germination up to 16 days. Of the peptide hydrolases, chymotrypsin-type activity was stable for the first 7 days, then rapidly increased towards the end; leucine aminopeptidase activity decreased to a minimum (8th day) then slowly increased again; trypsin-type activity remained constant throughout.Proteolytic and autodigesting activities showed an optimum between pH 5.0 and 5.5. Both activities decreased slowly first, then rose to a sharp maximum at the 8th day. The haemoglobin-digesting activity after a minimum increased again at the 14th day. The autodigesting activity had an additional maximum.Concomitant with these changes, non-protein nitrogen increased twofold by the 5th day, remained constant up to the 12th day and then increased again. Protein content on the other hand decreased first, had a maximum at the 9th day after which it steadily decreased again. The amounts of albumins and globulins changed independently of each other: albumins decreased continuously with the exception of a steady period (5-9th days), while globulins were more stable except for a sharp minimum (6-7th days) and a steady decrease after the 13th day.

The Cynara scolymus flowering heads extract was prepared through alcohol extraction, and the extract was characterized by a high content of caffeoylquinic acid.