PHILOSOPHY television game show Jeopardy
January 22 2016
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that pleasure is the only intrinsic good. A hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure (pleasure minus pain). Ethical hedonism is said to have been started by a student of Socrates, Aristippus of Cyrene. He held the idea that pleasure is the highest good.

Socrates 469–399bc classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. He went barefoot and was convinced that our souls - where virtues and vices are found - are vastly more important for our lives than our bodies or external circumstances. The name of Xanthippe wife of Socrates has become proverbial for any nagging wife. He said, "Bad men live to eat & drink whereas good men eat & drink in order to live"

Plato 423-347 bc was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. Author among others of "The Republic" and the "Symposium", "Socrates is a doer of evil, who corrupts the youth...such is the charge", Plato reported in "Apology"

Aristotle 384–322 bc was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Founder of "Lyceum", his students walked with him as he taught. Greek philosopher whose works were the basis for most scientific study well into 17th C. A Swallow does not make a summer; neither does one fine day" "Beauty is a matter of size and order", he wrote in his "Poetics"

Diogenes 404-323bc Cynic philosopher ascetic, sold by pirates as slave in crete. Their philosophy was that the purpose of life was to live a life of Virtue in agreement with Nature. This meant rejecting all conventional desires for wealth, power, sex, and fame, and by living a simple life free from all possessions. "I am looking for an honest man" has been attributed to Aesop & to Diogenes the Cynic

Epicureanism 307bc is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Epicurus believed that pleasure is the greatest good. But the way to attain pleasure was to live modestly and to gain knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of one's desires. This led one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia) and freedom from fear, as well as absence of bodily pain (aponia)

Zeno founder of Stoicism, Stoicism, which taught a form of naturalistic monotheism, originated in Greece country about 300 B.C. Zeno, a Phoenician, founded this "Greek" school of philosophy. The Stoics derived their name from a painted porch in Athens.

Aquinas 1225 – 1274), was an Italian Dominican priest, Summa theologiae Author of the "Summa Theologica", he held one of the chairs of theology at the Univ. of Parisgh

Erasmus 1466 – 1536 known was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, This "Praise of Folly" author taught Greek at Cambridge & published a Greek New Testament

Spinoza 1632 – 1677 was a Jewish-Dutch philosopher, This 17th C. Dutch Jew was excommunicated from his synagogue for his independent thinking, Dutch Jewish philosopher who coined the phrase "nature abhors a vacuum"

Swedenborg 1688 - 1772 was a Swedish scientist, philosopher, theologian, revelator, and, in the eyes of some, Christian mystic.

Hume David  1711 – 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism.

Edwards (Jonathan 1703 – 1758) is acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian, and one of America's greatest intellectuals. Edwards played a critical role in shaping the First Great Awakening, and oversaw some of the first revivals in 1733–35 at his church in Northampton, Massachusetts. Edwards delivered the sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God", a classic of early American literature

Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 is best known for his transcendental philosophy, which he viewed as a revolution for the humanities comparable to the one brought forth by Copernicus in the sciences. A Critique of Pure Reason. big name in Metaphysics field of philosophy, concerned with the ultimate nature of things. Some consider his "Critique of Pure Reason" the most influential modern work of philosophy

Hegel  1770 – 1831) was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism.

Kierkegaard 1813 – 1855 Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic, and religious author. He wrote critical texts on organized religion, Christendom, morality, psychology and philosophy of religion, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and parables. He is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. In the 19th century he attacked Denmark's Lutheran church, questioning its true Christianity. Opposing Hegel, this Danish philosopher said man does have free will

Marx Karl  1818 – 1883) was a Prussian-German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary socialist. The Communist Manifesto The last line of this 1848 tract has been translated as "Workers of the world, unite!" and Das Capital (1867–1894). He worked closely with his friend and fellow revolutionary socialist, Friedrich Engels. He's credited with the quote, "From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs" Engels completed vols. 2 & 3 of Karl Marx's "Das Kapital"

Nietzsche, 1844 – 1900 concept of Ubermensch, or superman, Thus Spake Zaratustra he says  god is dead, god remains dead, and we have killed him, Beyond Good and Evil, Ecce Homo: how one becomes what one is. Friedrich Nietzsche was a close friend of Wagner  "Lohengrin" composer but later turned against him. He refined his concept of the superman in "Beyond Good and Evil"

Wittgenstein 1889 – 1951 was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. He was professor in philosophy at the University of Cambridge.

Marshall McLuhan, 1911 – 1980) was a Canadian philosopher of communication theory. His work is viewed as one of the cornerstones of the study of media theory, as well as having practical applications in the advertising and television industries. McLuhan is known for coining the expressions the medium is the message and the global village,

 

American

Transcendental Brook Farm, was a utopian experiment in communal living in the United States in the 1840s. It was inspired in part by the ideals of Transcendentalism,

Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803–1882 led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. Essays: First Series and Essays: Second Series, Self-Reliance 'to be great is to be misunderstood', 19th century philosopher & poet who advised "Hitch your wagon to a star" Emerson wrote, "The only way to have a friend is to be one"

Henry David Thoreau 1817– 1862 transcendentalist.

   Walden life in the woods, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, 'the mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation' and his essay

   Civil Disobedience 'that government is best that governs least' 1849 work in which Thoreau asked, "Unjust laws exist: shall we be content to obey them...?"

Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by L. Ron Hubbard (1911–1986), starting in 1952, as a successor to his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. Hubbard characterized Scientology as a religion, and in 1953 incorporated the Church of Scientology in Camden, New Jersey. Scientology teaches that people are immortal beings who have forgotten their true nature.[7] Its method of spiritual rehabilitation is a type of counselling known as auditing, in which practitioners aim to consciously re-experience painful or traumatic events in their past in order to free themselves of their limiting effects. Pen name of Lafayette Hubbard, who died in 1986 after spending years in seclusion

John Dewey 1859 – 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology. He was a major representative of progressive education and liberalism.
George Santayana 1863-1952 in 1889 this "The Life Of Reason" author began teaching philosophy at Harvard

 

British
William of Ockham 1288 –1348 was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher. He is considered to be one of the major figures of medieval thought. Commonly known for Occam's razor, "razor"-sharp philosophy, a problem should be stated in its simplest & most basic terms.

Francis Bacon, 1561–1626  the creator of empiricism. His works established inductive methodologies for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method, or simply the scientific method. In 1597 in his "Religious Meditations", Francis Bacon wrote that Knowledge is power"
Thomas Hobbes 1588 – 1679 best known for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory.

John Locke 1632–1704 Essay Concerning Human Understanding we're born with a blank slate with no innate ideas, tabula rasa, widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. In 1690 he wrote, "Wherever law ends, tyranny begins."

Jeremy Bentham 1748-1832 founder of modern utilitarianism.

John Stuart Mill 1806 – 1873 his conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control.
Bertrand Russell, 1872 – 1970 logician, mathematician, historian, and social critic.

 

French

Aberlard This French philosopher & lover of Heloise was an early exponent of the doctrine called Scholasticism

René Descartes (1596-1650) french, discourses on method, analytical geometry. French soldier & mathematician whose motto was "I think, therefore I am" Often called the father of modern philosophy, his philosophy was often called "Cartesianism" 17th c. French philosopher who wrote, "All the sciences are conjoined with one another and interdependent"

Albert Camus 1913–1960 Nobel Prize winning author, journalist, and philosopher. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism."No, I am not an existentialist. Sartre and I are always surprised to see our names linked Algerian-born Frenchman who wrote "The Stranger" before he worked for the resistance during WWII

Jean Paul Sartre 1905-1980 was the founder of the existentialist movement and one of the most prominent philosophers of twentieth century. Paris. No Exit, Being and Nothingness. While prisoner of the Germans in WWII, this existentialist wrote some of his greatest work In 1952 a critic called this Fr. philosopher the "Decade's foremost theatrical confidence man" This author of "No Exit" said no to a Nobel Prize in 1964

 

Cynic - A skeptic, or one of a Greek sect who espoused that virtue is the only good.

Nihilism In philosophy it's a doctrine that nothing exists & there is no objective truth

 

Logic It's the study of the principles of reasoning

The Power of Myth" is a book based on Bill Moyers conversations on PBS with Joseph Campbell

 

 

Philosophy and religion

Apostasy formal disaffiliation from or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person. One who commits apostasy (or who apostatises) is known as an apostate.

Chaplain clergyman of any denomination attached to a hospital, ship or university

Grace prayer of thanks before meals

Great Schism split in the Catholic church when rival popes were elected in 1378

Friar moniker for a mendicant comes from the Latin for "brother"

Hail Mary or Ave Maria - Prayer taken from salutation of Gabriel, it's now said as commonly as the Lord's Prayer

Nuns wear a habit

Jesus name is the Greek translation of the Hebrew name "Joshua", which means "Jehovah is Salvation"

Lord's Prayer - Its Catholic version forgives trespasses and trespassers; in some Protestant versions, debts and debtors. commonly known as Our Father and in the Latin tongue as the Pater Noster. In the New Testament it appears in two forms: Gospel of Matthew as part of the Sermon on the Mount, the Gospel of Luke

Lucifer "light bringer", it was originally the Latin name for the Morning Star, not Satan

Seven deadly sins, also known as the capital vices or cardinal sins, envy, gluttony, greed, lust, pride, sloth, wrath

Vulgate name given to the Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Roman Catholic Church

 

BIBLE old testament, King James Bible in 1611
Genesis
, Garden of Eden, Adam, Eve "the serpent beguiled me, and I did eat" forbidden fruit, Fall of Man: dust thou art and unto dust thou shall return. They could eat of the Tree of Life, but the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil was off limits
Day 1 light, day 2 heaven or firmament, day 3 earth, seed, tree, grass, day 4 stars, moon, sun, day 5 fish, fowl, day 6 cattle animals, man woman, day 7 rest
Cain and Abel were the two sons of "Adam and Eve." Cain is crop farmer and his younger brother Abel shepherd. Cain was the first human born and the first murderer, and Abel was the first human to die. Cain: am i my brother's keeper? Adam was a young 130 when he begat Seth, his third son. Land of Nod is a place in the Book of Genesis located "on the east of Eden" where Cain was exiled by the Lord God after Cain had murdered his brother Abel.
Noah the sailor got drunk, sons Shem, Japeth, Ham, Ark made of gopher wood. God's promise to Noah of no more floods was sealed by the appearance of Rainbow in the sky, The 1st creature Noah sent forth from the ark is Raven

Abraham and Sarah god made a covenant to give promised land, Canaan, sacrificed ram ahd son Isaac and Rebekah who was the father of Jacob (other name Israel the 12 tribes descended from him), the place in Egypt where Jacob settled was known as the Land o' Goshen. Jacob also had Esau. Esau saw ladder in dreams had 12 sons. Isaac sent this hairy son, Esau, not Jacob, to go hunting for venison. Jacob and Rachel had sons Joseph and Benjamin (The name of this son of Jacob means "Son of the right hand"). Jacob's Ladder is a ladder to heaven that the biblical Patriarch Jacob dreams about during his flight from his brother Esau. Jacob wrestled with an angel "until the breaking of the day"
  Abraham had son Ishmael with maid Hagar. Through sons Isaac & Ishmael both Jews & Arabs descend from Abraham.

Lot nephew of Abraham turned into pillar of salt. Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed by fire and brimstone (sulfur)

Joseph given a coat of many colors, stripped of his clothes sold in egypt to slavery by his brothers, dream interpretation

Tower of Babel

Gilead mountanous region east of the Jordan,

Nimrod the mighty hunter

Methuselah lived 969 years
 

Exodus, Ark of bulrushes in which the infant Moses (His sister Miriam and brother Aaron) was placed. Ark of the Covenant, also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a chest containing the Tablets of Stone on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed and pieces of manna. Tabernacle was the portable dwelling place for the divine presence from the time of the Exodus from Egypt through the conquering of the land of Canaan. Manna, Golden Calf build from old jewelry. Aaron brother first high priest of hebrews. Aaron was Moses' mouthpiece in dealing with Pharaoh, According to the Book of Numbers, Moses sent 12 men to spy out the Land of Canaan. God appears to Moses as a burning bush.
 10 Plagues placed on Egypt, Frogs, locusts, boils, lice, death of 1st born. Passover is deliverance from plagues.
 10 Commandments on Mt Sinai: 1. I am the lord thy god. 9. Thou shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. 10. Do not covet your neighbor's ass.

  When they were slaves, the Israelites lived in this Goshen the land of Egypt

  Tabernacle It takes 13 verses in Exodus 26 to tell how to make the curtains for this tent that held the Holy Ark

  Water came out of the rock at Horeb after Moses struck it with his rod

  Manna was like coriander seed, white; & the taste of it was like wafers made with honey

  While smiting the firstborn in Egypt, the Lord passed over houses with Lamb's Blood on the doorposts
Leviticus contains laws of priests and levites (temple assisstants). Scapegoat.

Numbers contains census every 40 years. Balaam a prophet hired to curse the israelites, beat his donkey who rebuked him "And the Lord opened the mouth of the ass, and she said to him 'What have I done unto thee?'".

Deuteronomy law of moses set down for the second time.

Joshua, sequel to Deuteronomy, fit the battle of Jericho, the walls took a tumble. leader who brought israelites into Promised land and destroyed city of Jericho. Mizpah ("watch-tower; the look-out") is a region in Gilead, at the foot of Mount Hermon, inhabited by Hivites . Things saved from Jericho were the gold & silver, the iron & brass vessels & Rahab & her family
Judges, history of jews from death of joshua to birth of samuel. Sampson dies in Gaza, of the Philistines 5 strong cities. Sampson and hair cutter Delilah, he tied 300 torches to foxes.

Ruth is from Moab. Great grand mother of david, returned with Naomi to israel and married Boaz. Naomi's daughter-in-law, she not only gleaned Boaz's wheat, she married him. Boaz gave Ruth, daughter-in-law of Naomi 6 measures of barley after she slept at his feet

Samuel, Saul first king of Israel tried to kill david eventually falls on his own sword. Eli high priest, teacher of samuel. David reigns over Judah and Israel.
   David killed Goliath the philistine, had affair with Bathsheba. The name "Palestine" comes from Philistine Biblical enemies of Israel.
Bathseba 2 husbands were Uriah the Hittite & David the king
   Absalom was the third son of David, his hair got caught in a tree, King of Israel described as the most handsome man in the kingdom. Absalom eventually rebelled against his father and was killed during the Battle of Ephraim Wood.

   Saul admitted to David, "I have played the fool and have erred exceedingly"

Kings -
In 1 Kings 3:12 God said to Solomon, "I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart"  King Solomon with gold mines. Solomon built Temple of Jerusalem, wailing wall, had 700 wives, nation split into two after his death, was visited by queen of Sheba

Elijah was a famous prophet and a wonder-worker in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of Ahab (9th century BC), went to heaven on chariot
A believer in the pagan god Baal, Jezebel name has come to mean a wicked, shameless woman, To the devout, Jezebel wife of King Ahab represented evil

Elijah opposed idols, incurred wrath of Jezebel who was wife of Ahab. He was taken up to heaven in a chariot of fire. Elijah took on 450 prophets of Baal & 400 from Asherah on the slopes of mountain Carmel above Haifa.
Chronicles - Nimrod, king of Shinar, was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush and great-grandson of Noah. He is depicted in the Tanakh as a man of power in the earth, and a mighty hunter. Extra-biblical traditions associating him with the Tower of Babel led to his reputation as a king who was rebellious against God. Several Mesopotamian ruins were given Nimrod's name by 8th century Arabs.
According to II Chronicles 2, over 153,000 people worked on its construction in Jerusalem, Salomon's Temple

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther chosen by persian king Haman to be his wife, with the help of Mordecal stops massacre of jews. Purim is feast of lots. Adar is month.
Job patient, his faith was tested by satan,
The first verse of this book says, "There was a man in the land of Uz that feared God and eschewed evil" The Lord told Satan, “There is none like him in the Earth, a perfect and an upright man” Job In his sorrow this Old Testament figure said, "The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away"

Leviathan sea monster associated with chaos and evil. The lord giveth and the lord taketh away.

Psalms Half of the Psalms are attributed to king David whose name means "Beloved (Of God)"
  23hd - the lord is my shepherd, i shall not want. My cup runneth over.

Proverbs, maxims of Solomon and others
  pride goeth before destruction and a haughty spirit before a fall

Ecclesiastes written as though by Solomon the preacher. This Old Testament book opens "The words of the preacher, the son of David, King in Jerusalem" 'cast thy bread upon the waters for thou shalt find it after many days' Tradition says that King Solomon wrote this book of the Old Testament containing essays on life. "A man hath no better thing under the sun than to eat drink and be merry.

Song of Solomon

Isaiah foretold coming of messiah, 'the wolf also dwell with the lamb, there is no peace unto the wicked. Isaiah quotes the Lord as saying "Heaven is my throne, the earth is my footstool" "They shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks" Isaiah 40:15 says, "Behold, the nations are a drop of a bucket"

Jeremiah angry lamentation of the people's wickedness. Sorrowful O.T. prophet, his name now refers to predictors of doom

Lamentations This book bewailing the destruction of Jerusalem is traditionally attributed to Jeremiah

Ezekiel

Daniel and the lions - during captivity of israelites in babylon by nebuchednezar. Daniel in the lions den, Gabriel was messenger, the handwriting on the wall. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego are people recorded in the book of Daniel, known for their exclusive devotion to God. In particular, they are known for being saved by divine intervention from the Babylonian execution of being burned alive in a fiery furnace.

Joel warned future plagues worse that locusts

Jonah and the whale, a prophet lost at sea. depicts Nineveh as a wicked city worthy of destruction.

 

Dagon half man, half fish, was a major member, or perhaps head, of the pantheon of the Biblical Philistines.
It brought the Philistines such bad luck that they returned the Ark of the Covenanat to the Israelites after 7 months

Golgotha The Aramaic name for Calvary, the hill in Jerusalem on which Jesus was crucified

Jonathan He was David's best friend & the son of David's worst enemy, King Saul

Seraphim is a type of celestial or heavenly being in the Abrahamic religions with 6 wings

This judge's general, Barak, refused to battle the Canaanites unless Deborah accompanied him

Abednego The original name of this man, thrown in the fiery furnace, was Azariah

 

New Testament
jesus is lion of the tribe of judah, he wore purple robe, had 5 loaves and 2 fish

Mary Magdalene sinful woman, After his resurrection, Jesus said to her, "Woman, why weepest thou? Whom seekest thou?"

Salome Never mentioned by name in the Bible, this daughter of Herod is is one of the most famous women in it

Jesus At Cana in Galilee he performed his 1st miracle changing water into wineat a wedding

Jesus taught, "Greater love hath no man than to lay down his life for his brother / friend

Among these Parables were those "of the net", "of the mustard seed" & "of the hidden treasures"

Many are called but few are chosen

Herod 74– 4bc was a Roman client king of Judea. colossal building projects in Jerusalem and elsewhere, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (sometimes referred to as Herod's Temple). Herod ordered all children under 2 to be killed. John the Baptist beheaded by Herod at the request of daughter Salome

Pontius Pilate Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, from AD 26–36,  judge at Jesus' trial and the man who authorized the crucifixion of Jesus. As prefect, he served under Emperor Tiberius.

 

Historical Books
Matthew - Presents Jesus as the Messiah
Hebrew word meaning "the annointed one". Genealogy of Jesus through Joseph. Fulfillment of O.T. prophecy.
Nativity - jesus born in Bethlehem visited by three Magi - Gaspar, Malcheer, Balphazar with gifts of gold,  franincense and myrrh (used in burial).
John the Baptist preached in wilderness of judea 'repent ye for the kingdom of heaven is at hand'
Although elderly & barren, Elizabeth, cousin of Mary, gave birth to John the Baptist

 So the last shall be first and the first last. For many are called but few are chosen. What... God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.
 Mary immaculate conception
 Moved to Nazareth in Galilee, walked on sea of galilee,
 Sermon on the Mount. Beatitudes-
“Blessed are the poor in spirit; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven” is the 1st. Lord's prayer. The parable of the good samaritan. 'ask and it shall be given to you, seek and you shall find.
 Golden rule 'do unto others as you would have them do unto you'

 By their fruits ye shall know them (fals prophets)

 Go the extra mile. judge not that ye be not judged. The meek shall inheriti the earth. Ye arte the salt of the earth
 Twelve apostles: Simon Peter rock first pope, fisher, 3 times denied jesus, keys to kingdom of heaven. Andrew fisher of man on scottish flag, James santiago in spain son of thunder. Thomas doubter.
The 2 Apostles to whom Jesus said, “Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men” Peter and Andrew

 'for what is a man profited if he shall gain the world and lose his soul? upon this rock i will build my church

 The Last Supper (passover meal) basis for holy communion of the eucharist. Biblical event commemorated by the taking of communion in Christian ceremonies

 Jesus delivered to Pontius Pilate (Governor of Judea who asked Jesus, "Art thou the king of the Jews?"), Judas, treasurer, hangs himself, Barabas the prisoner whom people wanted freed rather than jesus, taken to Calvary (golgatha) 'father forgive the for they know not what they do'

 Line in Matthew 7:7 which follows "Ask and it shall be given you" Seek and you shall find

 Apostles: Matthew gospel writer was a tax collector at Capernaum when Jesus 1st met him. Peter is also called Simon, Simeon or Cephas

 In Matthew 16:18 Jesus said to Peter, "Upon this rock I will" build my church.
 Joseph of arimathea buried jesus body in his own tomb
Mark - shortest, earliest gospel. Presents Jesus as the Servant. 1/3 of the gospel deals with the last week of His life.
Mark's gospel says Mary Magdalene woman whom Jesus cured of seven demons was the first to see him resurrected
Luke - Presents Jesus as the Son of Man to seek and save the lost. Genealogy of Jesus through Mary. Largest of the gospels. Contains material about early life of Jesus, read at christmas. is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation. Prodigal son kill the fatted calf, Good Samaritan parable. Angels bring sheperds tidings of good joy. Mary visits Elizabeth has son john.
  Bring the fattened calf and kill it. Let's have a feast and celebrate.
  Elisabeth was the mother of John the Baptist and the wife of Zacharias/Zachary

  after the Sanhedrin trial of Jesus, the Jewish elders ask Pontius Pilate to judge and condemn Jesus. Pontius Pilate admitted in Luke 23:14 that "I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man..."
John - Presents Jesus as God in flesh, the Christ, so that you might believe. Most spiritual gospel. 'in the beginning was the word.' Lazarus brother of mary and martha of behany. Jesus is Lamb of god which taketh away the sin of the world. let him who is without sin cast the first stone.

   Ecce Homo are the Latin words ("Behold the Man") used by Pontius Pilate in the Vulgate translation of the John 19:5, when he presents a scourged Jesus Christ, bound and crowned with thorns, to a hostile crowd shortly before his Crucifixion.
Acts of the apostles written by Luke- Historical account from Jesus’ ascension to travels of Paul in his missionary journeys.
 Pentecost is Greek name for the Feast of Weeks, a prominent feast in the calendar of ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law on Sinai. This feast celebrated as Shavuot. Later, in the Christian liturgical year, a feast commemorating the descent of Holy Spirit upon twelve Apostles of Christ. Seventh sunday after easter.

 Ananias a man who fell dead when peter rebuked him for withholding from the apostles a paart of the proceeds from sale of his land.
 As he approached damascus a heavenly light blinded Paul for 3 days, conversion on the road to damascus. Paul born in Tarsus region of Cilesia.

 Peter saw most of the food restrictions placed on the Jews lifted during his dream in Acts 11

 Lazarus of Bethany, a figure in the Gospel of John, which describes him being raised by Jesus from the dead

Pauline Epistles (This apostle was en route from Fair Haven to Phoenix when he & his captors were shipwrecked)
Romans - A systematic examination of justification, sanctification, and glorification. Examines God’s plan for the Jews and the Gentiles.
The single longest of Paul's epistles is addressed to Romans
1 Corinthians - This letter deals with factions and corrections due to immorality, lawsuits, and abuse of the Lord’s Supper. Also mentions idols, marriage, and the resurrection.
I Corinthians 7:9 states, "But if they cannot control themselves, they should marry, for it is better to marry than to burn with passion'
2 Corinthians - Paul’s defense of his apostolic position.

Galatians - Paul refutes the errors of legalism and examines the proper place of grace in the Christian’s life. In Galatians Paul wrote, "Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ"
Ephesians - The believer’s position in Christ and information on Spiritual warfare.
Philippians - Paul speaks of his imprisonment and his love for the Philippians. He exhorts them to godliness and warns them of legalism.
Colossians - Paul focuses on the preeminence of Jesus in creation, redemption, and godliness.
1 Thessalonians - Paul’s ministry to the Thessalonians. Teachings on purity and mention of the return of Christ.
2 Thessalonians - Corrections on the Day of the Lord. Rapture is a term in Christian eschatology which refers to the "being caught up" , when the "dead in Christ" and "we who are alive and remain" will be "caught up in the clouds" to meet "the Lord in the air.
1 Timothy - Instructions to Timothy on proper leadership and dealings with false teachers, the role of women, prayer, and requirements of elders and deacons. 'the love of money is the root of all evil'
Paul 1 Timothy wrote, "Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief"
2 Timothy - A letter of encouragement to Timothy to be strong.
Titus - Paul left Titus in Crete to care for the churches there. Requirements for elders.
Philemon - a letter to the owner of a runaway slave. Paul appeals to Philemon to forgive Onesimus.

Non Pauline Epistles
Hebrews - A letter to the Hebrew Christians in danger of returning to Judaism. It demonstrates the superiority of Jesus over the O.T. system. Mentions the Melchizedek priesthood. (Hebrews may be of Pauline origin. There is much debate on its authorship).
James - a practical exhortation of believers to live a Christian life evidencing regeneration. It urges self-examination of the evidence of the changed life.
1 Peter - Peter wrote this letter to encourage its recipients in the light of their suffering and be humble in it. Mentions baptism.
2 Peter - Deals with the person on an inward level, warnings against false teachers, and mentions the Day of the Lord.
1 John - John describes true fellowship of the believers with other believers and with God. Describes God as light and love. Encourages a holy Christian walk before the Lord. Much mention of Christian love.
2 John - Praise for walking in Christ and a reminder to walk in God’s love.
3 John - John thanks Gaius for his kindness to God’s people and rebukes Diotrephes.
Jude - Exposing false teachers and uses O.T. allusions to demonstrate the judgment upon them. Contends for the faith. Michael archangel contends with devil about the body of moses.
Revelation - A highly symbolic vision of the future rebellion, judgment, and consummation of all things. Apocalypse, judgment day, second coming christ, Pale horse represents death, Gog and Mago nations that will fight each other, Armageddon final battle. The four horsemen of the apocalypse, white horse is conquest, red horse is war, famine is black, plague is purple.
In the Book of Revelation, Michael archangel does battle with Satan.


40
Number of days from Christ's resurrection to his ascension

Bethlehem birthplace of jesus

Beatitudes, blessed are the rich in spirit, "Blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called the children of God"

Epistle is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter. The letters in the New Testament from Apostles to Christians are usually referred to as epistles. Epistle of Jude warns of false teachers. At least 13 of the epistles, including Romans & Galatians, were written by Paul.
Gold, Frankincense and myrrh

Harod was king of Judea at the time of jesus birth

Jerusalem, city of peace
Judas, 30 pieces of silver

King Herod and head of John the Baptist

Lazarus raised from the dead

Mammon is referred to in the New Testament to describe material wealth or greed, most often personified as a deity, and sometimes included in the seven princes of Hell.

Parable This parable the Good Samaritan begins "A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves..."

Sermon on the Mount, Jesus said, "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called Children of God.

Shekel A standard unit of weight equal to about 1/2 ounce, or the silver coin of that weight

Thomas apostle who doubted

Priest Profession in which one might wear a cassock, alb, chasuble & maniple

 

Beelzebub is a Semitic deity that was worshiped in the Philistine city of Ekron. In later Christian and Biblical sources, he is referred to as another name for Devil, and in Christian demonology, is one of the seven princes of Hell according to Christian views on Hell.

Lord's Prayer (also called the Pater Noster or Our Father is a central prayer in Christianity. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, it appears in two forms: in the Gospel of Matthew and Luke, Our father in heaven hallowed by your name

Mystery plays by monks in middle ages
Philistines, uncouth, unsophisticated
Vulgate is a late 4th-century Latin translation of the Bible. It was largely the work of St. Jerome

 

Milk and honey in Canaan
The love of Money is the root of all evil

The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak

 

325ad Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I.

1122 Concordat of Worms, was an agreement between Pope and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. It brought to an end the first phase of the power struggle between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Emperors and has been interpreted[2] as containing within itself the germ of nation-based sovereignty that would one day be confirmed in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648).

1521 Diet of Worms counter reformation was an imperial diet, or assembly, of the Holy Roman Empire which addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.

1545 Council of Trent was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. The Council issued condemnations on what it defined as Protestant heresies at the time of the Reformation and defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints.

In 1815 Congress of Vienna restored the Papal States to the pope

 

CATHOLIC
Catholicism is distinguished from other forms of Christianity in its particular understanding and commitment to tradition, the sacraments, the mediation between God, communion, and the See of Rome.

1549 Called greatest Catholic missionary of modern times, Franis Xavier introduced Christianity into Japan in 1549

1559 Index of Forbidden books.

Advent is a season observed in many Western Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas. In Germany wreaths are hung with 4 candles representing the 4 Sundays of this holy season

Angel, Cherub, winged celestial being. In art, cherubim have 4 wings; Seraphim highest-ranking angels, guardians of god's throne, have 6 wings

Apocrypha - writings accepted as bible books by some

Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent in the Western Christian calendar. Occurring 46 days before Easter; Jesus spent 40 days fasting in the desert, where he endured temptation by Satan. Ash Wednesday marks the beginning of this 40-day liturgical period of prayer and fasting or abstinence.

Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name (intercession of saints). Beatification is the third of the four steps in the canonization process.

Capuche long pointed hood worn by capuchins

Catechism - A book giving a brief summary of the basic principles of Christianity in question-and-answer form.

Cistercians is a Roman Catholic religious order of enclosed monks and nuns. They are sometimes also called the Bernardines or the White Monks, in reference to the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular is worn. Bernard of Clairvaux Born in 1090, at Fontaines, near Dijon, France; died at Clairvaux, 1153.

Dies Irae" (Day of Wrath) is a thirteenth century Latin hymn

Diocese is the district or see under the supervision of a Bishop. It is divided into Parishes (in the Church of England into Benefices and parishes). An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese.

Eucharist, also called Holy Communion, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Lord's Supper, and other names, is a Christian sacrament. It is reenacted in accordance with Jesus' instruction at the Last Supper, that his followers do in remembrance of Him as when he gave his disciples bread, saying, "This is my body", and gave them wine, saying: "This is my blood." Transubstantiation is the doctrine that, in the Eucharist, the substance of the bread and the wine used in the sacrament is changed into the substance of the Body and the Blood of Jesus

Feast day - Catholic Church assigns one date out of the year for each and every canonized saint — known as the saint's feast day. On May 9, 1969, it was declared that 200 Catholic saints would lose these

Holy See The authority, jurisdiction, and governmental functions associated with the papacy.

Miserere, full name "Miserere mei, Deus" (Latin: "Have mercy on me, O God") by Italian composer Gregorio Allegri, is a setting of Psalm 51 (50) composed during the reign of Pope Urban VIII, probably during the 1630s, for use in the Sistine Chapel during matins,

Palm Sunday occurs 7 days before Easter. This holiday is the 6th Sunday in Lent

Penance For a Catholic after confession, it may consist of 3 Hail Marys & 4 Our Fathers
Pentecost is the Greek name for the Feast of Weeks, a prominent feast in the calendar of ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law on Sinai. This feast is still celebrated as Shavuot. Later, in the Christian liturgical year, it is also a feast commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the twelve Apostles of Christ.

Prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranksin precedence with ordinaries.

Rectory house of minister or priest

Refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially inmonasteries, boarding schools, and academic institutions.

Sacraments

  Baptism, Christening
  Confession
  Eurcharist, sacrament of communion Mass it the celebration or service of eucharist.

Synod is church council

Trinity defines God as three divine persons or hypostases the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit.

Vatican Councils The Roman Catholic Church has had 2 of these councils: one 1869-70 & one 1962-65

Vesper evening prayer

Virtues, faith hope charity

Wimple - nun's head and chest covering

Father Flanagan (1886 - 1948 was a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. He was the founder of what is arguably the most famous orphanage—Boys Town. The campus is not just an orphanage, but now a center for troubled youth.

2013 Cardinal Roger M. Mahony removed from duties since he shielded accused priests.

 

Angels
Gabriel is an archangel who typically serves as a messenger to humans from God.

Michael archangel
Raphael, Uriel, and Lucifer.

Celebrations
Fiesta de san Fermin - bulls

 

Celebrations

January - Epiphany-christ reveals to magi-twelth day

February- Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, which falls on 2 February, celebrates an early episode in the life of Jesus. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and some Eastern Catholic Churches, it is one of the twelve Great Feasts. Other traditional names include Candlemas

 Shrove sun, mon, tue then mardi gras.
 Ash wednesday burning last year's palms, 1st day lent.

March 25 Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Jesus, meaning "Saviour". Many Christians observe this event with the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, nine full months before Christmas, the birthday of Jesus.

Palm Sunday a week before Easter  commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem
 Ash Wednesday

 Maundy Thursday washing of feet
 Good Friday liturgy of the Passion performed this day,

Easter (anglosaxon spring goddess)

May Ascension day, 40th day after easter (10 day before pentocost (whitsunday) seven sundays after easter)
 Military bases are often open to the public on Armed Forces day, the third saturday

 Memorial day 1868

June Corpus Christi 11 days after pentecost

August 15 Assumption mary risen to heaven

Nov 1 All saints day Advent 4 sundays before christmans

 Sadie Hawking day (Al Capp)

Dec 25 Christmas feast of the nativity.

 

Friars
 
560 Benedictine, followed by Cisterians in 1098 who were very strict then in 1664 Trappists who were in Normandy and perpetual silence.

1210 Francis of Assisi followed by 1500Capuchin named for their hoods, Junipero Serra, a Spanish Franciscan friar started missions in California.

1214 Dominican spanish friars and preachers. In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as Black Friars because of the black cloak they wear over their white habits. Dominicans were Blackfriars, as opposed to Whitefriars (for example, the Carmelites) or Greyfriars (for example, Franciscans).

 

Popes, papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect anew Bishop of Rome. Fanon  is a shoulder-cape worn by the pope alone, consisting of two pieces of white silk ornamented with narrow woven stripes of red and gold. Legate envoy representing the pope. mozzetta is a short elbow-length cape that covers the shoulders and is buttoned over the breast. Antipope Specific term for someone who claims to be pope when there already is one
590-604 Gregory 1st great pope, Gregorian Chant

1305 to 1314 Clement 5, presided suppressed knights templar, moved papacy to Avignon

1376, Gregory XI moved the papacy from Avignon back to Rome
1503 to 1513 Julius II, sistine chapel with michelangelo

1527 Stand of the Swiss Guard took place during the sacking of Rome on May 6, 1527, when the Pope's Swiss guards held off troops loyal to the Habsburgs long enough for Pope Clement VII to escape.

1582 Gregory XIII calendar

1939-58 Pius XII
1958-63 John XXIII encyclical vatican council
1963-78 Paul VI first to visit US

1978 until his death in 2005 John Paul II

2005: Cardinal Ratzinger elected as the 265th pope and chooses the name Pope Benedict XVI.

Pope: your holiness, Cardinal: your eminency, Bishop: your excellency.

1962 Second Vatican Council Pope John XXIII opened this historic meeting in St. Peter's Basilica

 

Saints

Agnes virgin martyr

Andrew, brother of Peter, patron saint of constantinople, Scotland's national flag displays the cross of this man, its patron saint

Aquinas, thomas patron of students, The family of this patron of students once kept him in a castle to keep him from becoming a friar, Author of the "Summa Theologica", he held one of the chairs of theology at the Univ. of Paris, March 7 is the feast day of this Medieval saint, This scholarly 13th century saint was often called "The Angelic Doctor"known as the "Angelic Doctor"

Apollonia was one of a group of virgin martyrs who suffered and was tortured in Alexandria during a local uprising against the Christians. According to legend, her torture included having all of her teeth violently pulled out or shattered. For this reason, she is popularly regarded as the patroness of dentistry and those suffering from toothache or other dental problems

Augustine 354 – 430 north africa, Confessions. City of God, biggest influence on christian thinking since Paul, mom was Monica.
  Augustine roman monk sent to england,
St. Augustine 1st archibishop of canterbury circa 601

Barbara, miners

Benedict benedictine holy rule

Bernadette, Our Lady of Lourdes. Bernadeta Sobirós;1844 – 1879) was a miller's daughter born in Lourdes, France and is venerated as a Christian mystic and Saint in the Catholic Church.

Bernard Brewer's Dictionary quotes this saint as having said, "Love me, love my dog."

Boniface english monk to germany

Bridget of Sweden (1303 –1373; was a mystic and saint, and founder of the Bridgettines nuns and monks

Brigid founded the 1st convent in Ireland, at Kildare, & is one of its patron saints

Cabrini frances xavier 1st us citizen canonized

Christopher carried christ across stream, traveler, The name of this patron of wayfarers comes from Greek for "one who carries Christ"

David wales

Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221), was the founder of the Dominican Order. Dominic is the patron saint of astronomers.

Elmo's fire (also St. Elmo's light is a weather phenomenon in which luminous plasma is created by a coronal discharge from a sharp or pointed object in a strong electric field in the atmosphere (such as those generated by thunderstorms or created by a volcanic eruption). St. Elmo's fire is named after St. Erasmus of Formiae (also called St. Elmo, the Italian name for St. Erasmus), the patron saint of sailors. As their patron saint, St. Erasmus, also known by this name, gets sailors all fired up

Francis of Assisi - A prayer of this saint included the line "Who am I, worm of the Earth..."; always with the animals

Genevieve paris

George patron saint of England, slayed dragon, He's the patron saint of The Order of the Garter, the highest order of English knighthood

James, hatter
Jerome is best known for his translation of the Bible into Latin (the Vulgate), patron saint of librarians.

King Olaf II is Norway's patron saint

La Salle 1651 – 1719 was a priest, educational reformer, and founder of Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools. He is a saint of the Roman Catholic church and the patron saint of teachers.

Loyola, Ignatius This saint was born in the castle of Loyola, Azpeitia, Spain

Luke, doctors

Mark, venice, winged lion, Gospel writer who is the patron saint of Venice, his winged lion is the city's symbol

Michael, policemen

More, thomas statesman and writer

Mother Seton, 1774 – 1821) was the first native-born citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church (1975). This American-born saint was a widow with five children when she converted to Catholicism

Nicholas  had a reputation for secret gift-giving, such as putting coins in the shoes of those who left them out for him, and thus became the model for Santa Claus. Feast day is dec 6th. The idea of Santa Claus came from stories about this 4th c. bishop who lived in what is now Turkey, Patron saint of children, his feast day is December 6, not December 25

Patrick ireland, Though born in Britain c. 385, he's the patron saint of a nearby island

Rose of Lima Patron saint of South America, she was the first canonized saint from the Western hemisphere

Sebastian is commonly depicted in art and literature tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows. martyr of rome

Stanislaus Poland's patron saint is St. Stanislaus of Krakow, the former capital of Poland

Stephen the protomartyr of Christianity, was a deacon in the early church at Jerusalem who was stoned to death by a mob following a dispute with members of a synagogue. Foxing day in England, dec 26

Valentine is a widely recognized third century Roman saint commemorated on February 14 and associated since the High Middle Ages with a tradition of courtly love. Medieval Europeans believed that birds begin to mate on this day

Vincent de Paul apostle of organized charity, Called the apostle of organized charity he's the patron of charitable societies, He founded the Daughters of Charity & the Lazarists, and a charitable society is named for him

 

American religious figures

Aimee Semple McPherson 1890–1944 Sister Aimee, Canadian-American Los Angeles-based evangelist and media celebrity in the 1920s and 1930s. She founded the Foursquare Church.

Billy Graham This evangelist who has personally preached to over 100 mil. now has his own star on Hollywood Blvd.

jerry Falwell, moral majority

pat Robertson
jimmy Swaggart

oral Roberts

 

PROTESTANT and non-catholic
Anabaptists are Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, considered Protestant by some. The Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites are direct descendants of the movement. The name Anabaptist is derived from the Greek term anabaptista, or "one who baptizes over again." Started in 16th century Switzerland.

Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or have similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures. Book of Common Prayer is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion. The original book, published in 1549 (Church of England 1957), in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome. The Book of Common Prayer says the peace of God "Passeth All Understanding. The 1914 Welsh Church Act declared that this was no longer the official church of Wales

Assemblies of God, officially the World Assemblies of God Fellowship, is a group of over 140 autonomous but loosely associated national groupings of churches which together form the world's largest Pentecostal denomination. With over 300,000 ministers and outstations in over 212 countries and territories serving approximately 57 to 60 million adherents worldwide, it is the sixth largest international Christian group of denominations.

Baptists are Christians who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and that it must be done by immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Their name comes from Greek for "to immerse", a rite they usually reserve for adults affirming faith in Jesus, In the 1600s the Baptists began baptizing by immersion,

Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical or New Thought family. It was developed in the 19th century in the United States by Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910), and described in her book Science and Health (1875), She founded a church "which should reinstate primitive Christianity & its lost element of healing"

597 Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St Augustine of Canterbury. Archbishop of Canterbury is known as the primate of all England

Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practising Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.

Coptic Christian church headed by the patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt.

Eastern Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Orthodox Church,  is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents. Greek Orthodox Church is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is traditionally conducted in Koine Greek,the original language of the New Testament. Has bishops, deacons & Priests as three major orders

Episcopal church is a mainline Anglican Christian denomination found mainly in the United States, as well as in Honduras, Taiwan, and parts of Europe. The Church was organized shortly after the American Revolution when it was forced to separate from the Church of England, as Church of England clergy were required to swear allegiance to the British monarch, On Jan. 1, 1977, in Indianapolis, Mrs. J. Means became 1st woman legally ordained a priest by this church. In 1989 Barbara Harris became the first woman in the history of the Episcopal Church to be made a Bishop.

Jehovah's witnesses, Watch tower magazine. The Watchtower Bible & Tract Society. They do their publishing through the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society of Pennsylvania

Jesuit, Ignatius of Loyola 1491 - 1556) was a Spanish knight from a local noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and was its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by unquestioning obedience to the Catholic Church's authority and hierarchy. This order of Catholic priests was originally called the Company of Jesus. This religious order runs 28 colleges in the U.S. including St. Louis U., Holy Cross & Georgetown U.

Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther 1483-1546, a German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Roman Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation. Have synods. Greek for "hidden books", Lutherans view these as non-canonical, but useful works, the Apocrypha. The number of theses, 95 proposals, that Martin Luther nailed to the door of Castle Church. Martin Luther objected to the papal policy of selling Indulgences to remit penalty for sins. The Augsburg Confession of 1530 sets forth the basic tenets of this denomination. In 1521 he told the Diet of Worms, "I cannot and I will not recant anything"

Mennonite Evangelical Protestant sect named for its founder, Menno Simons

Methodism is a movement of Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations The movement traces its roots to John Wesley's 1703-1791 evangelistic revival movement within Anglicanism. Denomination founded by a group of Oxford University students led by John Wesley. Circuit riding preachers of pioneer days were most associated with this Protestant denomination. In Britain, the Methodists' formal break with the Church of England came after the death of this founder

Mormon, Church of Latter Day Saints, Joseph Smith in 1830, Brigham Young settles in salt lake city in 1847. Its Mormon founders called Utah Deseret. Not until 1978 were blacks admitted to the priesthood in this religion. The Mormons called the region of Utah deseret: the Book of Mormon's word for honeybee. Brigham Young's famous 4-word quote uttered when he first saw the Great Salt Lake Valley 'this is the place' By the end of 1845, Mormon industry had turned Nauvoo from swampland into the largest city in Illinois, To help others reach the promised land, this church set up the Perpetual Emigration Fund in 1849

Pentecostalism is a renewal movement[1] within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism with the Holy Spirit.

Presbyterianism is a branch of Protestant Christianity that adheres to the Calvinist theological tradition. Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, and the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterianism originated primarily in Scotland. Protestant denomination named for the elders who administer it

Puritan The term "puritan" first described a faction within this church, Anglican Church or the Church of England

 

Reformation, protestant

John Wycliffe 1320 –1384 was an English Scholastic philosopher, theologian, lay preacher, reformer and university teacher at Oxford in England, who was known as an early dissident in the Roman Catholic Church during the 14th century. His followers were known as Lollards, a somewhat rebellious movement, which preached anticlerical and biblically-centred reforms. The Lollard movement was a precursor to the Protestant Reformation

John Calvin 1509 – 1564 was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. Calvin fled to Basel, Switzerland, where he published the first edition of his seminal work The Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536. When reformer John Calvin made Geneva his headquarters, it became known as "The Rome of the Protestants" John Calvin's followers in England were "Puritans"; his followers in France were called Hugenots
John Knox 1514 – 1572) was a Scottish clergyman and a leader of the Protestant Reformation who brought reformation to the church in Scotland. He was educated at the University of St Andrews.
Pupil of John Calvin, this John united protestants in Scotland

1545 council of Trent, books catholics cannot read

 

Quakers, or Friends. Friends' central doctrine is the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine which is derived from the Biblical passage 1 Peter 2:9. George Fox founder. Their belief in the "inner light" states there is "that of God in everyone" The American Quakers' General Conference headquarters is in this city philadelphia, In 1790 the first emancipation petition was submitted to Congress by this religious group. William Penn wrote "No Cross, No Crown", an explanation of Quaker beliefs, while he was imprisoned in the tower of london

Salvation Army is a Christian denomination and international movement known for its charity shops and other charity work, operating in 126 countries. The organization was founded in 1865 in the United Kingdom by William and Catherine Booth

Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.

Shakers invented clothespin, Known for their simple furniture, this sect came to the U.S. from England in 1774, led by "Mother Ann" Lee. The world's largest collection of manuscripts of this celibate religious sect is in Cleveland
Unification The full name of his church is the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity Sun Myong Moon, This founder of the Unification Church was originally a Presbyterian
Unitarianism is a religious theological movement, named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism which defines God as three persons coexisting consubstantially as one in being.[1] Thus, Unitarians contend that main-line Christianity does not adhere to strict monotheism as they do, maintaining that Jesus was a prophet, and in some sense the "son" of God, but not God himself. Nonbelievers in the Trinity, this group's name reflects their traditional belief in God as a Unity

 

BHUDDISM, enlightened, Sidharta Gautoma 6th cent bc, Ananda was his first cousin. Buddha, title of prince Siddhartha, comes from Sanskrit for "awakening"

Bodhi Tree, also known as Bo was a large and very old Sacred Fig tree located in Bodh Gaya in the Indian state of Bihar, under which Siddhartha Gautama, the spiritual teacher later known as Gautama Buddha, is said to have achieved enlightenment,

 Existence is suffering

 Suffering is caused by desire

 Nirvana or end to suffering is possible - For a Buddhist, this blessed state ends the cycle of death & rebirth

 Path leading to nirvana that involves right action, right resolve, right concentration

Zen The goal of this form of Buddhism is to attain satori, a state of spiritual enlightenment

 

China

CONFUCIUS 551–479 bc was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. "What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others" Confucius He called himself "a transmitter, not an innovator", so the Chinese picked his birthday for Teacher's Day. The 3 great traditional religions of China are Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism. Li or proper social conduct is a central virtue of this Chinese religion

Taoism The beliefs of this Chinese religion appear in the books "Lao-Tzu" & "Chwang-Tzu"

 

HINDUISM, India
Asana a physical posture conductive to meditation and bodily control

Ashram, a religious retreat or commune, a dwelling place in which a teacher guru devotes his life to imparting spiritual guidance

Atman the true self as contrasted with the limited ego or separate seeming personality also called Universal Principle, Supreme Consciousness, Divine soul

Avatar incarnation, god return in a body's form

Casts Brahmin priest highest Hindu caste, it can refer to powerful, wealthy Boston families, Kshatriya soldier landowner, Vaishys peasant trader; Shudra menial worker; Harijan untouchable

Dharma cosmic order of law, right conduct

Durga, a goddess of this Indian religion, riding a lion or a tiger, The name of Durga, a fierce & beautiful goddess of this religion, is Sanskrit for "the inaccessible"

Fakir hindu beggar who has mystical powers

Kali harsh goddess

Karma totality of a person's actions

Kumbh Mela celebrates the victory of gods over demons in a furious battle over nectar that would give them immortality. As one of the gods fled with a pitcher of the nectar across the skies, it spilled on four Indian towns: Allahabad, Nasik, Ujjain and Haridwar.

Kundalini a fundamental power or electrical force awakened through exercise, breathing, and concentration on nerve centers

Maharani In India, she was the wife of a Maharaja

Nirvana complete peace no passion

Om most sacred of mantras, considered as the name of god and source of all vibration, it is sounded in meditation to purify and align the various parts of the personality and to stimulate psychic centeres

Pali buddhist religious language

Prana vital energy present in and activating all which lives. In an ultimate sense prana is the sum of all energies of the universe

Pranayama regulation of breathing

Raj rule, sovereignty

Raja prince chief

Rani wife of rajah

Ryot peasant or tenant farmer

Sadhu denotes an ascetic, wandering monk

Sanskrit language

Shakti divine power of nature

Shanti peace

Shivratri is a Hindu festival celebrated every year in reverence of Lord Shiva.

Swami hindu master

Trinity Brahma supreme spirit, Vishnu preserver god (Krishna is considered the 8th earthly reincarnation, Hindus believe Vishnu descended from heaven in several forms, including Krishna), Siva destruction and reproduction

Vedas, "knowledge, are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.

 

ISLAM, submission to the will of god, Though Shi'ites have been getting the headlines, most Muslims belong to the sunni sect. It's the religion of nearly all the Malays in Malaysia

Adhan To Moslems, the adhan is a call to prayer

Aga Khan It's the title of the spiritual leader of the Ismaili sect of Muslims

Al Azar most famous islamic university in Cairo

Ayatollah This Islamic title, meaning "Sign From God", became well-known to the western world in the 1970s

Black Muslims Elijah Muhammad, formerly Elijah Poole, was the leader of this movement from 1934 to 1975

Druze are a monotheistic religious community, found primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan, which emerged during the 11th century from Shia Islam.

Hajj Every good Moslem is expected to make one of these pilgrimages to Mecca once in his life , More than a million pilgrims travel to Mecca each year for this great pilgrimage

Halal is a term designating any object or an action which is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law. The term is used to designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law.

Hegira when Mohammed went from Mecca to Medina. The Muslim calendar reckons time from this event

Houris After death, this faith's devout members get houris, celestial handmaidens

Iblis or al Shaitan are devils
Imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community.

Jihad holy war
Mahdi is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years- before the Day of Judgment

Medina Mohammed's flight from Mecca ended at this city, considered Islam's 2nd holiest

Minaret

Mohammed "Sayid" is an Arabic term of respect used in addressing his descendants, About 610 A.D. the angel Gabriel appeared to him while he was praying on Mount Hira.

Mosque House of worship in which prayer is led by an imam
Muezzin crier from minaret

Mohammed got Koran from angel Gabriel

Ramadan march and aril 30 day fasting

 

JUDAISM conservative, orthodox and reform, Religion whose Bible begins with the Book of Genesis & ends with II Chronicles

Rosh Hashanah in September is the Jewish New Year Surprisingly, this Jewish holiday falls on the 1st of Tishri, which the Bible calls the 7th mo. It is the first of the High Holy Days in the early autumn of the Northern Hemisphere. Rosh Hashanah is a two day celebration which begins on the first day of Tishrei, the first month of the Jewish calendar. The day is believed to be the anniversary of the creation of Adam and Eve. Yom Kippur also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year for the Jewish people (Abstinence from food, drink, sex & work is a part of the observance of this Jewish holiday). Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jewish people traditionally observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue services. Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in Judaism as the High Holy Days

Hanukkah in late november early december also known as the Festival of Lights and Feast of Dedication, is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd century BCE. need 44 candles for Menorah oil burns for 8 days. This Jewish holiday begun in 165 B.C. celebrates the purification of the temple of Jerusalem

Bar Mitzvah At 13 a Jewish boy automatically becomes this, the religious ceremony is not essential

Ephod richly embroidered vestment of old time by jewish priests

Essen ascetic mystic 2nd cent bc to 2nd ad

Hadassah It's the Women's Zionist Organization of America

Kabbalah is an esoteric method, discipline and school of thought.

Matzo This thin bread consumed during Passover reminds Jews of the hastily baked bread of the Exodus

Menorah 7 branch candelabrum 9 during Hanuka

Lilith - In Jewish mythology, this demon & child-killer was the first wife of Adam; then came Eve

Mikveh is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism.

Orthodox

Passover deliverance from egypt exodus Seder dinner

Reform

Shabbat saturday Sabbath begins and ends with sunset. For Jews, the sabbath starts on Friday evening

Shavuot the feast of weeks celerbrating the revelation of the law at mount sinai

Shibboleth password, word, sound, or custom that a person unfamiliar with itssignificance may not pronounce or perform correctly relative to those who arefamiliar

Synagogue, greek for a place of assembly. Greek for "place of assembly", it's a Jewish center of public worship, Synagogues are built so that the wall holding the ark of the Torah scrolls faces toward this city

Talmud is a central text of Rabbinic Judaism oral law, considered second to the Torah. has commentaries. This collection of Jewish religious & civil law has two parts: the mishna & the gammara

Torah has a range of meanings: it can most specifically mean the first five books of the Tanakh, it can mean this, plus the rabbinic commentaries on it, it can mean the continued narrative from Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, it can even mean the totality of Jewish teaching and practice. It's referred to in the New Testament as the Scriptures, Torah or Pentateuch.

Zionism This nationalist movement was founded by Jews at an int'l congress in 1897 in Switzerland

 

Japan
Shintoism Shrines of this religion have two main parts: the haiden, open to visitors, & the honden, closed to laymen

 

Sikhism, guru Nanak started Amritsar, the religious center of the Sikhs, is located in this country's Punjab state

Amrit-nectar Singh-lion

Arjun Mal a guru completed the Adi Grandth or first book

Khālsā is the collective body of Singhs and Kaurs represented by the five beloved-ones and is the final temporal Guru/leader of the Sikhs.

Nanak, who lived c. 1500, was the first guru of this religion which sought to unite Islam & Hinduism. Meaning "disciple", Sikh is a follower of Guru Nanak & his successor gurus

 

Tibet

Lamaism Around 1400 Tsong-kha-pa founded the Yellow Hat order of this Tibetan form of Buddhism

 

Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra in Avestan) and was formerly among the world's largest religions. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in the eastern part of ancient Greater Iran. Zoroaster, born in 630 bc in what's now Iran. A Parsi or Parsee is a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in India and Pakistan, a member of the other being an Irani. Descended from Iranian exiles, Parsi  Zoroastrians now live in India. The ancient Persian holy book, called the "Avesta", contains the writings of this man and his followers. Zoroaster a.k.a. Zarathustra was a great prophet who taught monotheism in Persia. Founded by a Persian prophet, its beliefs are contained in a sacred book called the Avesta

 

BRITISH myth and legend
Druidism
Julius Caesar devoted 3 chapters of his "Commentaries" to this religion of the "Ancient Briton"

Arthur, king, wife is Guinevere "Jennifer" derives from the Celtic form of this legendary Queen's name, Modred is enemy, knights of the round table. Uther Pendragon king & his queen, Igrayne, were the parents of King Arthur

Sir Galahad in Arthurian legend, is a knight of King Arthur's Round Table and one of the three achievers of the Holy Grail. He is the illegitimate son of Lancelot, and is renowned for his gallantry and purity.

Sir Gawain is King Arthur's nephew and a Knight of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend. He was well known to be the most trustworthy friend of Sir Lancelot.

Sir Lancelot was one of the Knights of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend. He was the most trusted of King Arthur's knights and played a part in many of Arthur's victories. Lancelot is best known for his love affair with Arthur's wife Guinevere.

Excalibur sword, The sword in the stone from the Lady of the Lake

Lady of the Lake Vivien or Nimue She abducted Lancelot when he was a baby & kept him on an island

Merlin wizard, advisor to Arthur

Morgan le Fay, enchantress, Half sister of King Arthur, in various tales she was good or evil

Oberon is a king of the fairies in medieval and Renaissance literature. He is best known as a character in William Shakespeare's play, A Midsummer Night's Dream, in which he is Consort to Titania, Queen of the Fairies.

Robin hood lives Sherwood forest and loves fair maiden Marion. Alan a dale is a musician, Little John is large and burly. Friar Tuck is a francescan priest. Sheriff of Nothigham is villain. Robin Hood is an heroic outlaw in English folklore, a highly skilled archer and swordsman. Although not part of his original character, since the beginning of the 19th century[1] he has become known for "robbing from the rich and giving to the poor",[2] assisted by a group of fellow outlaws known as his "Merry Men".[3] Traditionally, Robin Hood and his men are depicted wearing Lincoln green clothes. Robin Hood's hyphenated henchman Allan-a-Dale

 

GERMAN

Faust is the protagonist of a classic German legend; a highly successful scholar but one dissatisfied with his life who therefore makes a pact with the Devil, exchanging his soul for unlimited knowledge and worldly pleasures. Faust and the adjective Faustian imply a situation in which an ambitious person surrenders moral integrity in order to achieve power and success for a delimited term. Thru many a metaphysical joust Mephistophenes tried to win the soul of Faust

Gunther a king of burgundy who marries Brunhilde a queen of iceland

Lorelei An echoing rock in the Rhine River is named for this legendary siren who lured fishermen to destruction

Tannhauser a knight and minnesinger (german lyric poets and singers of the 12 to 14th cent, corresponding to minstrels, troubadours) of the 13th cent dealt with in legend as a knight who seeks absolution after giving himself up to revelry  in the Venusberg (mountain where venus held court in a cavern enticing travellers who became loath to leave.

Siegfried a hero who wins the treasure of the Nibelung (any of a race of dwarfs, the children of the mist, who owned a magic ring and a hoard of gold taken from them) he kills a dragon and helps Gunther win Brunhild for a wife.

 

EGYPT Hieroglyphics
Amon-Re sun god, head of hawk, wearing solar disk as crown

Amun also Amon, Amen, was a local deity of Thebes.

Anubis, head of jackal, lead dead to judgment, The Egyptian god Aenubis had the head of this dog-like scavenger

Apis, sacred bull

Horus, god of pharaoh, head of hawk and crown of Egypt

Isis, goddess of fertility and mariners, sister and wife of Osiris, represented by cow's horns surrounding lunar or solar disk, In Egyptian mythology, she was the mother of Horus, the sky god

Ra, sun, head of falcon and sun , In ancient Egypt the god called "Khepera" at dawn & "Atum" in the evening was known by this name at noon

Osiris ruler of dead, afterlife

Sphinx It plagued Thebes by killing & eating anyone who didn't answer its riddle

Thoth god of wisdom, head of dog or ibis, Ancient Egyptians believed this bird to be a representative of the god Thoth