PQQ Pyrroloquinoline quinone supplement
November 25 2016

PQQ is available as a dietary supplement and claimed to support mitochondrial health and cellular energy production, and as an antioxidant. There are claims that PQQ stimulates the spontaneous growth of new mitochondria in aging cells, and activates genes that govern mitochondrial protection and repair.

Products for sale
Doctor's Best, Best PQQ, 20 mg, 30 Veggie Caps

Role in the body
In animals, PQQ is reported to participate in a range of biological functions with apparent survival benefits (e.g., improved neonatal growth and reproductive performance). There are also benefits from PQQ supplementation related to cognitive function, immune, and antioxidant functions, as well as protection from cardiac and neurological ischemic events. PQQ is involved in cell signaling pathways, particularly those important to mitochondriogenesis.

J Bioscience. 2012. Pyrroloquinoline - quinone and its versatile roles in biological processes. Pyrroloquinoline-quinine (PQQ) was initially characterized as a redox cofactor for membrane-bound dehydrogenases in the bacterial system. Subsequently, PQQ was shown to be an antioxidant protecting the living cells from oxidative damage in vivo and the biomolecules from artificially produced reaction oxygen species in vitro. The presence of PQQ has been documented from different biological samples. It functions as a nutrient and vitamin for supporting the growth and protection of living cells under stress. Recently, the role of PQQ has also been shown as a bio-control agent for plant fungal pathogens, an inducer for proteins kinases involved in cellular differentiation of mammalian cells and as a redox sensor leading to development of biosensor. Recent reviews published on PQQ and enzymes requiring this cofactor have brought forth the case specific roles of PQQ. This review covers the comprehensive information on various aspects of PQQ known till date. These include the roles of PQQ in the regulation of cellular growth and differentiation in mammalian system, as a nutrient and vitamin in stress tolerance, in crop productivity through increasing the availability of insoluble phosphate and as a bio-control agent, and as a redox agent leading to the biosensor development. Most recent findings correlating the exceptionally high redox recycling ability of PQQ to its potential as anti-neurodegenerative, anticancer and pharmacological agents, and as a signalling molecule have been distinctly brought out. This review discusses different findings suggesting the versatility in PQQ functions and provides the most plausible intellectual basis to the ubiquitous roles of this compound in a large number of biological processes, as a nutrient and a perspective vitamin.

Alzheimer's disease role
Pyrroloquinoline quinone inhibits the fibrillation of amyloid proteins. Prion. 2010 Jan-Mar. Several neurodegenerative diseases involve the selective damage of neuron cells resulting from the accumulation of amyloid fibril formation. Considering that the formation of amyloid fibrils as well as their precursor oligomers is cytotoxic, the agents that prevent the formation of oligomers and/or fibrils might allow the development of a novel therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) inhibits the amyloid fibril formation of the amyloid proteins, amyloid beta (1-42) and mouse prion protein. The fibril formation of mouse prion protein in the presence of PQQ was dramatically prevented. Similarly, the fibril formation of amyloid beta (1-42) also decreased. With further advanced pharmacological approaches, PQQ may become a leading anti-neurodegenerative compound in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Parkinson's disease
Toxicol Letter. 2015. Pyrroloquinoline quinone-conferred neuroprotection in rotenone models of Parkinson's disease. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a redox cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, has proven to protect neurons against glutamate-induced damage both in vitro and in vivo. This study was aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of PQQ in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) model. Pre-treatment with PQQ prevented cultured SH-SY5Y cells from rotenone-induced apoptosis, accompanied by modulation of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax and Smac), restoration of the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, suppression of tyrosine residues nitration, and dopamine redistribution. PQQ also exerted protective effects in an in vivo PD model, which was created by rotenone injection into the medial forebrain bundle of rats. Co-injection with PQQ and rotenone improved the apomorphine-evoked rotation, decreased neuronal loss, increased the ROS-scavenging ability, regulated intracellular expressions of mitochondrial complex subunits (Ndufs1-4), tyrosine hydroxylase, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Taken together, our results collectively suggest that PQQ confers neuroprotection in rotenone-induced PD model probably through complex and multifaceted mechanisms, at least involving oxidative stress, mitochondrial integrity, and dopamine functions.

Q. I stumbled across a reference to PQQ  today, and have been looking for information since. What do you think of this newest vitamin?
   A. there is very little human research with pqq and he is awaiting results of more studies before determining whether this product has advantages over existing, and better studied, antioxidants and cognitive enhancers.

Q. I have been taking a supplement known as PQQ with a long intimidating chemical name. I have found no tangible effect on my body mind, so when I finish the bottle, I'll toss the empty container. Perhaps I am taking so many antioxidants and mitochondrial stimulants that PQQ has no effect. Another thing that amazes me is that the AMA has declared that below 150/90 is the new normal for blood pressure. My former doctors were all pushing me to start a BP control regime and I always avoided it. Now, my BP is within normal range and I have spared myself the potential adverse effects of strong medication. Isn't medicine fascinating?