Risperdal risperidone adverse effects by Ray Sahelian, M.D.
February 12 2016

Risperdal is a pharmaceutical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment for schizophrenia. The generic name is risperidone. It has been approved since 1993 for the short-term treatment of adults with schizophrenia, and since 2003 for the short-term treatment of adults with acute manic or mixed episodes associated with extreme mood swings. Risperdal is marketed by Janssen, L.P. in Titusville, NJ.

Risperdal side effects, adverse reactions
Risperdal has side effects that include causing obesity and diabetes mellitus.

Prescrire Int. 2015. Atypical neuroleptics in elderly patients: acute kidney injury. Using data from health insurance databases, a Canadian team showed that patients aged 65 years or older had a statistically significant increased risk of hospitalisation with acute kidney injury within the 90 days after they were newly prescribed the oral "atypical" neuroleptics risperidone, quetiapine or olanzapine. Adverse effects that can lead to kidney injury were identified: hypotension, acute urinary retention, pneumonia, myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmia. All-cause mortality also increased.

Glucose and lipid metabolism of long-term risperidone monotherapy in patients with schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007. Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
The aim of the present study was to investigate glucose and lipid metabolism, and feeding-control parameters in schizophrenia patients treated with long-term Risperdal monotherapy. Fifteen patients with paranoid-type schizophrenia who had been treated with Risperdal and had Global Assessment of Function (GAF) scores >70 were selected and compared with healthy volunteers (n = 25). Single assessments of psychotic symptoms, side-effects, Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS) score, bodyweight, body fat percentage and blood sampling were performed. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, adiponectin, prolactin and feeding-control parameters (ghrelin and leptin) were analyzed. The body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, leptin, total ghrelin, active ghrelin and prolactin levels of patients treated with Risperdal were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers, while the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower. Although the patients had very mild psychiatric symptoms and maintained functionally high levels, the glucose and lipid parameters were significantly impaired compared to healthy volunteers. A high level of plasma ghrelin might increase appetite, leading to exacerbation of metabolic impairment.

Use of long-acting risperidone in psychiatric disorders: focus on efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness.
Expert Rev Neurother. 2009; Keith S. Department of Psychiatry, 2400 Tucker, NE Room 404, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.
The need for an agent combining the advantages of a long-acting formulation with those of an atypical antipsychotic was highlighted in 1997 by the American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia. The first long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta, Johnson & Johnson), has since been developed. This article discusses the efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, and suggests possibilities for how its role in clinical practice may change over the next 5 years.

Risperdal for autism
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Risperdal ( risperidone ) orally disintegrating tablets for the symptomatic treatment of irritability in autistic children and adolescents. The approval is the first for the use of a drug to treat behaviors associated with autism in children. These behaviors are included under the general heading of irritability, and include aggression, deliberate self-injury, and temper tantrums.
   The productís effectiveness in the symptomatic treatment of irritability associated with pediatric autistic disorders was established in two 8-week, placebo-controlled trials in 156 patients aged 5 to 16 years, 90 percent of whom were 5-12 years old. The results, which were evaluated using two assessment scales, showed that children on Risperdal achieved improved scores for certain behavioral symptoms of autism compared to children on placebo. The most common side effects of the use of Risperdal included drowsiness, constipation, fatigue and weight gain.
   Comments: It is my opinion that approving Risperdal based on an eight week study is dangerous. When children take these antipsychotic drugs for months and years serious Risperdal side effects could occur. All attempts should be made to avoid the use of Risperdal in children, and to only use this drug when absolutely necessary and for the shortest period possible.

Risperdal for teenagers with schizophrenia
June 2007 - Johnson and Johnson announced approval for use of its drug Risperdal as a treatment for adolescents with schizophrenia and children and adolescents in the manic phase of bipolar disorder.

Drugs R D. March 2013. Bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic evaluation of two formulations of risperidone 2 mg : an open-label, single-dose, fasting, randomized-sequence, two-way crossover study in healthy male Chinese volunteers.