Vaccinium macrocarpon cranberries for urinary tract infections, use of extract as supplement
February 1 2017

Vaccinium macrocarpon berries have been used for prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections for decades. The berries contain proanthocyanidins that may reduce the susceptibility to infection by preventing bacteria from attaching to uroepithelial cells, cells that line the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

Vaccinium macrocarpon extract possesses potent antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity against cancer in vitro and in vivo.

Proanthocyanidins in Vaccinium macrocarpon reduce bacterial adhesion
Cranberry derived proanthocyanidins reduce bacterial adhesion to selected biomaterials.
Langmuir. 2008; Eydelnant IA, Tufenkji N. Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Catheter associated urinary tract infections linked with the uropathogens Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) account for the majority of nosocomial infections acquired in the clinical environment. Because these infections develop following initial adhesion of the bacterial pathogens to the catheter surface, there is increased interest in developing effective methods to inhibit attachment of cells to biomaterials used in the manufacture of indwelling devices. High molecular weight proanthocyanidins extracted from the North American cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon were examined for their potential to reduce the initial adhesion of uropathogenic bacteria (E. coli CFT073 and E. faecalis 29212) to two model biomaterials, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Well-controlled experiments conducted in a parallel-plate flow chamber demonstrated decreased attachment of both bacteria to PVC and PTFE when either the bacteria, biomaterial or both surfaces were treated with proanthocyanidins. Most significant inhibition of bacterial adhesion was observed for the condition where both the bacteria and biomaterial surfaces were coated with proanthocyanidins. Additional experiments conducted with nonbiological model particles demonstrate comparable extents of adhesion inhibition, supporting a nonbiospecific mechanism of proanthocyanidins action. The results of this study are promising for the implementation of proanthocyanidins from iVaccinium macrocarpon n the clinical milieu for prevention of device associated infection as the proposed functional modification is independent of antibacterial mechanisms that may give rise to resistant strains.

In vitro inhibitory effect of cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpom Ait. juice on pathogenic microorganisms.
Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2008; Magariņos HL, Sahr C, Selaive SD, Costa ME, Figuerola FE, Pizarro OA. Institute of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agropecuarian Sciences, Southern University of Chile, Valdivia, Chile.
The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Vaccinium macrocarpom juice on pathogenic microorganisms. The microorganisms analyzed were Escherichia coli from patients with urinary infections, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The disc method was used to determine the sensitivity of bacteria to Vaccinium macrocarpom juice. The results indicated that S. aureus was more susceptible to Vaccinium macrocarpom juice inhibition than the other microorganisms. L. monocytogenes was the most resistant to the inhibitory action of Vaccinium macrocarpom juice, showing a significant difference from the inhibition of P. aeruginosa, uropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella spp., and S. aureus.

Protection from chemotherapy drugs
Cranberry protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2010. Elberry AA, Abdel-Naim AB, Abdel-Sattar EA, Nagy AA, Mosli HA, Mohamadin AM. Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used cancer chemotherapeutic agent. However, it generates free oxygen radicals that result in serious dose-limiting cardiotoxicity. Supplementations with berries were proven effective in reducing oxidative stress associated with several ailments. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential protective effect of cranberry extract (CRAN) against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. CRAN was given orally to rats (100mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days) and DOX was administered on the seventh day. CRAN protected against DOX-induced increased mortality, ECG changes. It significantly inhibited DOX-provoked glutathione (GSH) depletion and accumulation of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyls in cardiac tissues. The reductions of cardiac activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly mitigated. Elevation of cardiac myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in response to DOX treatment was significantly hampered. Pretreatment of CRAN significantly guarded against DOX-induced rise of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB as well as troponin I level. CRAN alleviated histopathological changes in rats' hearts treated with DOX. In conclusion, cranberry protects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. This can be attributed, at least in part, to CRAN's antioxidant activity.