Weight loss naturally, diets, programs, low carb, high fat, high protein, tips, supplement review, natural pill information by Ray Sahelian, M.D.
October 15 2016

There are two effective ways to lose weight -- either reduce energy intake by eating fewer calories, or increase energy output through movement and exercise. This article reviews a number of different weight loss diet programs. I also discuss products that are marketed as natural weight loss pills to help you determine which work and which have little research to back up the promotional claims.
   Losing weight is difficult and the prevalence of obesity in the United States is increasing. Overall, a third of Americans are obese. This leads many frustrated, overweight people to search for a fast weight loss pill or drug, program, or any type of natural or herbal supplement. The answer may not lie in a fast, crash diet, but rather in long term, healthy lifestyle changes. Your best chance of success is to divide your goal into small, manageable parts.

Top Twelve tips for healthy weight loss and reducing sugar addiction:
A simple way to avoid packing on more pounds: Eat more slowly. Eating a smaller portion of chocolate and other snack foods will satisfy you just as much as a larger portion. Jan, 2, 2014, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, online.

Drinking about 16 ounces of water 30 minutes before meals can help with weight loss for obese adults, Parretti, HM. Obesity, August 2015. University of Birmingham.

Interested in adopting healthier eating habits? You have a better chance of success if you find a friend with similar traits to share the experience. A family dinner can help boost children's intake of healthy fruits and vegetables.

Walk at least a half hour a day or do another form of exercise that you enjoy. Find activities, sports, games, dances, housework, gardening, or any kind of movement that you enjoy doing. Seek hobbies and interests that you are passionate about so you won't be thinking about food as a primary source of pleasure. Exercise and movement are the best things you can do to lose excess pounds or kilos. Find a friend to walk with daily. If you are busy being active not only will you use up calories, but you won't be putting any in during the time of activity. Whenever you can take the stairs rather than the elevators. Do a few sit-ups several times a day to strengthen your belly muscles. However, keep in mind that exercise is not as important as caloric reduction in terms of shedding pounds.
   Many of us now spend so much time sitting in one place without moving: In front of the computer, watching TV for hours, reading a book, etc. Research shows taking frequent breaks and walking even a little bit can make a difference in reducing weight, waist size, and reducing the risk for heart disease. Let's remind ourselves to get up frequently from our chair and walk, even as little as 10 or 20 seconds, before sitting back again.
 Or, you can do a few pushups and sit-ups. Thirty minutes of exercise a day is a good amount to aim for.

All too often overeating is triggered by stress, boredom, loneliness, anger, depression, anxiety and other emotions. Eating styles rub off on family and friends and the types of foods you consume are likely to be influenced by who you spend time with.
   There are natural herbs and supplements that can help with depression and perhaps reduce the urge to overeat. Exercise and yoga can lift mood and reduce tension.
5-HTP, a natural serotonin precursor, can help reduce appetite and sugar cravings.

Eat a little more (but not too much more) at breakfast and less later in the day. Eating a healthy breakfast, especially one high in protein, increases satiety and reduces hunger throughout the day but each person is unique and if you are not hungry in the morning eat only as much as you feel like. Go with your own body rhythm, eat breakfast if you are hungry but skip it if you are already full from the night before. In many people eating a protein-rich breakfast reduces the brain signals controlling food motivation and reward-driven eating behavior. Shifting slightly a greater proportion of a day's total calorie intake to breakfast and lunch time may decrease weight gain over time. Reduce the quantity of late night meals and snacks.

Eating your food very fast blocks your body's natural appetite-control process. Eating fast can lead to food overconsumption and obesity so take the time to slow down and appreciate each bite and morsel. Many weight-loss programs suggest eating smaller sized bites and savoring them in your mouth a little longer. Such advice actually helps cut food intake. You don't have to finish everything on your plate. If you feel full, then store the rest in the refrigerator for later.

When you go to the grocery store, buy healthy foods. Avoid processed and packaged foods. If you buy junk foods, sweets, chocolate, and ice cream, you are likely to consume them at some point during the day or night during moments of low will power. To eat a healthy way requires making a commitment to shop smart and to cook smart. Foods that most commonly pack on pounds include potato chips, French fries, and sugary sodas. Keep unhealthy and high caloric food out of sight and out of mind.

Reduce consumption of calorie dense foods since they are the most likely source of weight gain. Reducing dietary energy density, particularly by combining increased fruit and vegetable intakes with decreased fat intake, is an effective strategy for managing body weight while controlling hunger.
Easy weight loss may be as simple as eating more fruits and vegetables that have water and fiber and less food that is calorie-dense, such as cheese, ice cream, pies, cakes, sweets, and nuts (if you like to eat nuts, buy them raw rather than roasted). A weight loss approach based on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption leads to a significant weight loss and is associated with a decrease in hunger.

Reduce any sugared drinks, such as iced teas and soft drinks. Dilute fruit juices with water. Sodas that are sugared are a quick way to put on extra pounds without realizing it. Take a look at this important page that provides healthy
diet choices. Overweight people tend to eat more refined carbohydrates, such as white bread and pasta, which cause a rapid spike in blood sugar. Refined carbohydrates are often found in processed foods that contain a lot of sugar. This type of carbohydrate has what's called a high glycemic index, meaning it causes a rapid increase in blood sugar. The body stores that sugar in muscle, but if it is not used, it becomes fat. In contrast, whole grains, fruits and vegetables have carbohydrates that don't have such high glycemic index. Substitute stevia -- the no calorie natural sweetener -- for sugar. Several studies now say that drinking diet sodas do not contribute to overall caloric intake since somehow people compensate for eat it and consume just as many calories overall.

Add half a teaspoon or a teaspoon of sugar-free psyllium husk powder (a fiber sold in health food stores or grocery stores under different brand names) to a glass of water and drink it with each meal. Psyllium absorbs a lot of water and gives you a sense of fullness. After you have lost a few pounds, reduce your fiber supplement intake to one or two meals since, in some people, taking too much fiber may interfere with absorption of certain minerals. This is normally not a major issue unless a person is borderline deficient in some minerals. Another option is to include more flaxseeds in your diet. Consumption of flax seeds helps to reduce appetite.

Eat more protein during the day and reduce intake of simple carbohydrates.

Those who get either little sleep or a lot of it may see a greater expansion in their waistlines over time since lack of sleep makes the brain more sensitive to food stimuli resulting in overeating. Learn ways to sleep better and deeper. If you follow the very first tip which suggested exercising more, you will naturally get a deeper rest at night.

   Sleep deprivation appears to boost levels of a chemical that makes eating more pleasurable -- similar to the effects of marijuana, leading to weigh gain.

Nutritional and herbal weight loss supplements to consider
If the above suggestions do not help you shed pounds, consider natural diet pills. Countless herbal weight loss products are sold over the counter. It is difficult to know which, if any, will benefit you. Sometimes it may take trial and error to find out which formula is best suited for your particular situation. It is preferable not to take these pills for more than one month before taking a break for a week. Consider having a medical checkup before starting a weight loss diet pill program. If you have a weight loss success story with a supplement, please contact us.

Diet Rx appetite control pill
Contrary to what the medical establishment says, some natural pills do help curb appetite  -- not in everyone but a good number of users. If you don't have enough will power to reduce energy intake by eating less, then Diet Rx, a natural appetite suppressant, could help you control your appetite, without stimulants. It has no added caffeine, pyruvate, ephedra, ephedrine alkaloids, synephrine, hormones, guarana, ginseng, or stimulating amino acids.

All natural appetite suppressant, decreases appetite so you eat less
Helps you maintain healthy blood sugar levels
Helps you maintain healthy cholesterol and lipid levels
Provides healthy fiber
Improves energy
Balances mood
Improves mental concentration and focus
Improves will power and choice of food selection

Buy Diet Rx appetite suppressant

There are many weight loss supplements on the market that have a combination of the following herbs and nutrients:

Green tea extract may be effective in some people as a weight loss pill when combined with other nutrients and herbal extracts.
Hoodia is a cactus plant extract from the Kalahari desert in South Africa that has been getting a lot of attention lately as an appetite suppressant.
Carnitine in combination with choline and caffeine could be of benefit. Carnitine can give an energy boost.

5HTP is a nutrient that helps curb appetite in some individuals. 5-HTP, by converting into serotonin, can be used temporarily to improve will power and decrease the urge to eat until more established weight loss habits are in place.
Acetyl l-Carnitine is a mind booster that may reduce appetite in some individuals.
Cayenne pepper
Konjac, also known as glucomannan fiber, helps improve satiety.
Psyllium fiber is a wonderful addition to a meal, you can mix half a teaspoon with a few ounces of water and drink before or at the start of a meal. Other types of fiber are also of benefit, perhaps even flax and chia seeds.

Alpha lipoic acid may also reduce appetite but it is primarily used as an antioxidant and blood sugar management in those with diabetes.
Citrus aurantium is a thermogenic appreciated by some people although it can increase body temperature and in very high doses can increase heart rate.
Caffeine is often found in weight loss pills but I personally don't like my patients taking too much caffeine since it can cause increased heart rate and anxiety. Most people already consume enough caffeine through coffee, tea, sodas, and chocolate.
Yerba mate herb in combination with guarana and other herbs or extracts may be of benefit.
Prebiotics could be of benefit in shifting the types of bacteria in the colon to those that are not as efficient in extracting energy from food in the colon. Rev Med Chil. 2010 Aug: The association of intestinal microbiota with obesity.

Does drinking water lead to weight loss?
Studies of individuals dieting for weight loss or maintenance suggest a weight-reducing effect of increased water consumption, whereas studies in general mixed-weight populations have yielded inconsistent results.  2013 American Society for Nutrition. Association between water consumption and body weight outcomes: a systematic review.

Long term weight loss is possible, but studies show mixed results
There is a general perception that almost no one succeeds in long-term maintenance of weight loss. However, approximately 20% of overweight individuals are successful when success is defined as losing at least 10% of initial body weight and maintaining it for at least 1 year. The National Weight Control Registry provides information about the strategies used to achieve and maintain long-term weight loss. The National Weight Control Registry reports that to maintain weight loss, members engage in high levels of physical activity (approximately 1 hour/day), eat a low-calorie diet, eat breakfast regularly, self-monitor weight, and maintain a consistent eating pattern across weekdays and weekends. After individuals have successfully maintained their weight loss for 2-5 years, the chance of longer-term success greatly increases.

Why do so many people regain weight after they've worked so hard to lose it? People who lose weight get really hungry. The body prompts us to eat about 100 calories more than usual for every 2 pounds or so of weight lost. It's this surge in appetite, even more than the drop in metabolism people have after weight loss, that drives weight regai

2014
Popular diets may work for a little while but even the best ones don’t keep most people slim in the long term. Just about everyone starts gaining back weight after a year or so, Dr. Mark Eisenberg of Jewish General Hospital/McGill University in Montreal, Canada and colleagues reviewed major studies looking at four of the most popular and medically lauded diets: Atkins, South Beach, Weight Watchers, and the Zone.

The following need more studies or are not of great benefit:
Pyruvate in high doses, such as 20 to 40 gm a day, have been shown in some studies to lead to weight loss, but these high doses are impractical and expensive.
Chitosan has not been found to be very helpful as a weight loss pill.
Fucoxanthin has not been studied well and there is a concern of getting too much iodine since it is found in seaweed. I would be cautious using this ingredient at this time due to the iodine content unless the product you buy specifically states how much iodine is in each capsule.
Kola nut is the seed kernel of a large African tree grown commercially around the world. It's chief constituents are caffeine, theobromine, tannins and phenolics, Garcinia cambogia has hydroxycitric acid and research results has not been consistent.
Apple cider vinegar has hardly any studies to back up the claims.
kolatin, and kolanin. Kola nut has thermogenic and stimulant properties.
Coleus forskohlii is an herb that contains forskolin.
Chicory extract is beginning to be studied.
Evodiamine has been promoted as a weight loss pill.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
Irvingia gabonensis

Omega 3 fatty acids do not seem to be helpful. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 15.

Caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation of rats decreases body fat and serum leptin concentration as does exercise.
The effect of a combination of caffeine, carnitine and choline with or without exercise on changes in body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin concentration and metabolic indices was determined in 20 male, 7-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats. We conclude that the indices of body fat loss due to dietary supplements were similar to those due to mild exercise, and there were no interactive effects of the two variables. Department of Nutrition and Agricultural Experiment Station, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. J Nutr 2000.

Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients.
Among the herbal preparations known to non-western cultures are materials which may have applications in modulating physiological processes which influence gut motility, food intake and energy balance. One such mixed herbal preparation is 'YGD' containing Yerbe Mate (leaves of Ilex paraguayenis), Guarana (seeds of Paullinia cupana) and Damiana (leaves of Turnera diffusa aphrodisiaca). This study had two distinct aims: to determine the effect of a herbal preparation 'YGD' containing Yerbe Mate, Guarana and Damiana on gastric emptying; to determine the effect of the same preparation on weight loss over 10 days and 45 days and weight maintenance over 12 months. The herbal preparation, YGD capsules, significantly delayed gastric emptying, reduced the time to perceived gastric fullness and induced significant weight loss over 45 days in overweight patients treated in a primary health care context. Maintenance treatment given in an uncontrolled context resulted in no further weight loss, nor weight regain in the group as a whole. The herbal preparation is thus shown to be one that significantly modulates gastric emptying. J Hum Nutrition Diet. 2001.

Is there a weight loss vitamin that works?
   If by the word vitamin you mean strictly vitamins A, B, C, D, and E, then I would not consider these to be effective since they don't help with appetite suppression. Except if the B vitamins are taken in massive dosages, but that would not be the best way to approach a weigh loss dietary supplement program.

Safety of natural herbs for weight loss
In my opinion, natural weight loss herbs and supplements are much safer that many FDA approved prescription diet pills.

Sticking to a program
Those attempting weight loss are quick to embrace the latest popular diet but are almost as quick to abandon it. Case in point is the rise and decline in the popularity of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets in the United States. The public seems ready to abandon these weight loss diets, despite some evidence of their effectiveness. Several studies have shown that these diets are effective in producing weight loss and metabolic improvements. The problem seems to be that the greater weight loss achieved with these diets is not maintained over time. It is not clear whether this is due to the waning effectiveness of the diet or to the inability of most people to maintain this regimen. See also causes of obesity. There may be some weight loss centers that could offer help, but not all of them are worth the money and not all such centers can be trusted.

Different weight loss programs for different people at different times
There is not a 'one and only' weight loss diet that works for everyone. It may take trial and error until you find the one(s) that work for you. Many types of diets work, just reduce the number of calories and choose the one that suits you best. No one weight loss program will work for everyone since each person is unique and has different food preferences, lifestyles and budgets. Will power and motivation vary significantly between individuals.
   Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and the Pennington Biomedical Research Center put four popular diets -- high carb, high fat, low-fat and high protein -- to the test to see which of the regimens resulted in more success. After two years of monitoring the participants, "all the diets were winners," said study co-author Dr. Frank Sacks, a professor of cardiovascular disease prevention at the Harvard School of Public Health. "All produced weight loss and improvements in lipids, reduction in insulin. "The key really is that it's the calories. It's not the content of fat or carbohydrates, it's just calories," said Frank Sacks.

A review of studies of popular weight-loss programs (Atkins, Zone, Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig, and a few others) has found that low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets were most effective with little difference from one plan to another.

Teenagers sitting down for family meals are more likely to stay slim as adults; Sept. 29, 2014, Journal of Pediatrics.

Atkins diet
An Atkin's-type weight loss diet that is low in carbohydrates produces much greater weight loss than the low-calorie, low-fat diet currently endorsed by the US National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). As reported in the Archives of Internal Medicine, Dr. Charles H. Hennekens, from the Agatston Research Institute in Miami Beach, Florida assessed weight loss in 60 people who were put on a modified low-carbohydrate diet or the NCEP diet for 12 weeks. Roughly 36 percent of subjects in each group were considered overweight or obese. With the NCEP diet, the percentage of calories from fat, carbohydrate, and protein held steady throughout the study at 30, 55, and 15 percent, respectively. On the modified low-carbohydrate diet, the percentages fluctuated during the study, but the percentage from carbohydrates never exceeded 28 percent. The average weight loss achieved with the modified low-carbohydrate diet was 13 pounds, nearly double that achieved with the NCEP diet. Moreover, the low-carb diet was linked to favorable changes in all cholesterol levels, whereas the NCEP diet produced more limited improvements.

Combination weight loss diet
Combining the best components of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets could be effective. Low carbohydrate diets such as Atkins, which largely exclude fruit, vegetables and grains, produce a greater weight loss initially than reduced-fat plans but in the long-term they are no better and may have side effects. Combining some of the good things from the low carb with the good things from the low fat diets seems to be satiating and also to enhance weight loss.

Calorie counting and small portion diet
Though countless fad diets promise a trimmer physique, the old-fashioned route of portion control and calorie consciousness may be the way to go after all. In an experiment with 24 young women, the study participants ate far fewer daily calories when their meal portions were trimmed down or when they traded in some calorie-dense dishes for less rich substitutes -- all without their feeling deprived. Both diet tactics -- portion control and lower-calorie options -- were effective and "additive," meaning women took in the fewest calories when they practiced both.

High protein diet
The ever-popular low-carbohydrate diets appear to work because they force people to eat more protein, which consequently suppresses appetite, most likely not because of a lower carbohydrate intake. Protein appears to encourage people to eat fewer calories overall. Low-calorie diets rarely work. This has encouraged researchers to consider that changing the ingredients of the diet, but not its calories, makes a difference in people's waistlines. A high protein diet could be combined with plenty of fresh vegetables. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations.
   Research March 2009 - People lose weight when they cut calories, but a diet with some extra protein may be especially effective at trimming body fat and improving blood fats. Over a one year period, a moderate-protein diet was better than a standard high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet at helping overweight adults shed body fat. Journal of Nutrition, March 2009.

Intuitive weight loss diet
Stop dieting. Become an "intuitive eater." It's a better way to maintain a healthy weight and reduce the risk of heart disease. Intuitive eaters don't diet -- they recognize and respond to internal hunger and fullness cues to regulate food intake. The basic premise of intuitive eating is, rather than manipulate what we eat in terms of prescribed diets -- how many calories a food has, how many grams of fat, specific food combinations or anything like that -- we should take internal cues, try to recognize what our body wants and then regulate how much we eat based on hunger and satiety.

Low glycemic index carbohydrates
Foods with a low-glycemic index, which are digested relatively slowly and cause smaller increases in blood sugar, may protect the heart and blood vessels better than low-fat fare. Researchers in Boston found that when obese people consumed as many carbohydrates with a low-glycemic index as they wanted, they had weight loss in 12 months as people who stuck with a conventional, calorie-restricted low-fat diet. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index include foods such as nonstarchy vegetables, fruit, legumes, nuts and diary products. Dieters who watched their glycemic indices also experienced a larger decrease in fatty substances in the blood linked to heart disease and had a drop in levels of a protein that interferes with the body's ability to break down blood clots. In contrast, low-fat dieters had an increase in levels of the same protein, which may put them at higher risk of heart attack.

Low fat vegan diet for weight loss
A diet free of animal products and low in fat may help trim the waistline without the task of strict calorie watching. Researchers found that of 64 postmenopausal, overweight women, those assigned to follow a low-fat vegan diet for 14 weeks lost an average of 13 pounds, compared with a weight loss of about 8 pounds among women who followed a standard low-cholesterol diet. The weight loss came despite the fact that the women were given no limits on their portion sizes or daily calories -- and despite the fact that the vegan diet boosted their carbohydrate intake. The diet improved the women's sensitivity to insulin, a hormone that ushers sugar from the blood and into cells to be used for energy. This was also accompanied by an increase in what's known as the thermic effect of food -- the amount of calories the body expends to process and store food. Vegan diets eschew all animal products, including dairy and eggs, in favor of fruits and vegetables, grains, nuts and beans. Although high-protein weight-loss regimens have painted carbohydrates as the enemy, a number of studies have found that vegetarians and vegans, who tend to eat a lot of fiber- and vitamin-rich carbohydrates, are much less likely to be overweight than meat-eaters. Women in the current study found the vegan diet easy to follow because they were not asked to count calories or keep tabs on portion sizes. They were, however, told to avoid added oils, nuts and seeds to keep their fat intake down.

Among a group of overweight, postmenopausal women, most of those who followed a vegan diet -- which contains no animal products such as dairy, meat or eggs -- said they enjoyed the diet. Most women also said they were mostly or completely used to the vegan diet after 14 weeks, and planned to continue it, for the most part at least, in the future. Moreover, women eating only vegan foods had a weight los of an average of 13 pounds, more than women who followed a standard low-fat diet.

Eating grapefruit
Eating half of a grapefruit three times per day before meals appears to help people with weight loss. Moreover, regular grapefruit-eaters experienced a decrease in insulin, which in excess can increase the risk of weight gain and cardiovascular problems.

Perhaps no weight loss program?
In a world filled with an endless choice of weight loss plans, perhaps the best decision an overweight person can make is to avoid dieting. In a two-year study of obese women who had been chronic dieters, they found that women who went through a program that focused not on weight loss, but on self-acceptance and a healthy lifestyle, showed long-term declines in their cholesterol levels and blood pressure. What's more, those health improvements occurred despite the fact that the women did not lose weight. In contrast, study participants who followed a more regimented diet and exercise plan regained most of the weight they initially lost, and they did not sustain improvements in their cholesterol and blood pressure.
   Dietary counseling-based weight loss programs may help overweight adults loss a modest amount of weight but, in the long run, the odds of keeping the weight off are slim.

Should you eat snacks or avoid them?
Apparently it makes little difference in terms of weight loss whether you snack or not unless you are eating a lot when you are not hungry.

Should snacks be recommended in obesity treatment? a 1-year randomized clinical trial.
To study the effect to recommend no snacks versus three snacks per day on 1-year weight loss. The hypothesis was that it is easier to control energy intake and lose weight if snacks in between meals are omitted. A total of 140 patients (36 men, 104 women), aged 18-60 years and body mass index>30 kg/m(2) were randomized and 93 patients (27 men, 66 women) completed the study. A 1-year randomized intervention trial was conducted with two treatment arms with different eating frequencies; 3 meals/day (3M) or 3 meals and 3 snacks/day (3+3M). The patients received regular and individualized counseling by dieticians. Information on eating patterns, dietary intake, weight and metabolic variables was collected at baseline and after 1 year. Over 1 year the 3M group reported a decrease in the number of snacks whereas the 3+3M group reported an increase. Both groups decreased energy intake and E% (energy percent) fat and increased E% protein and fiber intake but there was no differences between the groups. Both groups lost weight, but there was no significant difference in weight loss after 1 year of treatment. Recommending snacks or not between meals does not influence 1-year weight loss. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007. Department of Metabolism and Cardiovascular Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.

Weight loss drugs
There are several FDA approved weight loss pills. Some of these include fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, phentermine, orlistat, and sibutramine. I am not thrilled about the prescription weight loss medications since many have serious side effects. Pharmacotherapy for the management of obesity has included thyroid hormone, amphetamines, phentermine, amfepramone (diethylpropion), phenylpropanolamine, mazindol, fenfluramines and, more recently, sibutramine and orlistat. These agents decrease appetite, reduce absorption of fat or increase energy expenditure. If animal studies apply to humans, people taking the weight loss drug Xenical might have an increased likelihood of developing kidney stones, especially if they have a high intake of oxalate-containing foods.

Weight loss surgery - As a last resort, if nothing else has worked
Weight loss surgery - for instance gastric bypass - is an option for the morbidly obese. Weight-loss surgery works not just by restricting the amount of food absorbed by the body, it seems. In part, at least, it works by causing hormone changes that reduce appetite and improve sugar metabolism. Patients who undergo stomach bypass have increased levels of two hormones, PYY and GLP-1, which would be expected to produce sensations of fullness after eating. In addition, patients have changes in their insulin response that would lead to improved blood sugar levels. By contrast, patients who lose a comparable amount of weight through gastric banding, a procedure in which the size of the stomach is restricted but it's not actually bypassed, do not show these hormonal changes. Substantial weight loss after gastric bypass surgery is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease.
  The risk of complications after weight loss or "bariatric" surgery increases for each additional year over age 60. A "duodenal switch" operation is more likely to result in complications than the more commonly performed stomach bypass operation. The stomach bypass results in weight loss by surgically "bypassing" the stomach, while the duodenal switch involves removing most of the stomach and reconfiguring the digestive tract to limit the amount of fat and calories that can be absorbed by the intestines.

Children
Overweight children can get in shape by spending part of their summer at a weight-loss camp. Breastfeeding babies often leads to leaner kids.

Knee cartilage benefits
Losing a large amount of weight slows the loss of knee cartilage in obese people. Obesity is a major risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that often leads to joint replacement surgery.

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