Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is an herb commonly used as a spice in Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian, Latin American, Chinese, African and Southeast Asian cuisine. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh coriander leaf and the dried coriander seeds are the most commonly used in cooking. Coriander belongs to the parsley or carrot family, Apiaceae. See also cilantro.
Coriander seed and herb essential oils have been actively investigated for their chemical composition and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic (blood sugar lowering), hypolipidemic (blood lipid or cholesterol lowering), anxiolytic (anxiety reducing), analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-cancer activities, among others.
Coriander reduces cholesterol and triglycerides levels in rats.
Coriander seed information
The dry coriander fruits are known as coriander seeds or simply as coriander. They have a lemony citrus flavor when crushed. Coriander seeds are usually dried but can be eaten green. Ground coriander is a major ingredient in curry powder. Rare cases of anaphylaxis have been reported with coriander seed ingestion.
Some essential oils or fragrances include bergamot and coriander.
Coriander chemical composition
The essential oil of coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum) and wild coriander leaves (Eryngium foetidum) grown in Fiji was obtained by steam distillation. The most important odorants in coriander were found to be Z-2-decenal, a co-eluting odor-cluster (E-2-dodecenal, E-2-dodecen-1-ol, and 1-dodecanol), beta-ionone, eugenol, and E-2-decenal. E-2-decen-1-ol was the most abundant compound in coriander but only contributed a tiny fraction of the total odor activity. The most abundant compound in wild coriander leaves was E-2-dodecenal, which also contributed the most odor activity. Other important odorants were either eugenol or a trimethylbenzaldehyde isomer, beta-ionone, Z-4-dodecenal, dodecanal, and E-2-tetradecenal.
The major component of essential oil of fennel, transanethol, had a lower antioxidant activity than essential oil of coriander. The mixture of essential oils from laurel and coriander possess antioxidant properties and strongly inhibit the oxidation of components of fennel oil.
Use for athlete's foot
Topical Treatment of Tinea Pedis Using 6% Coriander Oil in Unguentum Leniens: A Randomized, Controlled, Comparative Pilot Study; Dermatology (Mar 2013). The antifungal activity of coriander oil has already been demonstrated in vitro. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of 6% coriander oil in unguentum leniens in the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis. Half-side comparative pilot study on subjects with symmetric, bilateral interdigital tinea pedis. Active drug and placebo control were applied twice daily on the affected areas, and follow-up visits were performed on days 14 and 28. Results: 40 participants (mean age 52.5 years, 60% male) were included in the study. For 6% coriander oil in unguentum leniens, a highly significant improvement of the clinical signs was observed during the entire observation period; the number of positive fungal cultures also tended to decrease. The tolerability of the tested substances was good. Coriander oil is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of interdigital athlete's foot infection.
For food preservation
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015. Antimicrobial Activity of Coriander Oil and Its Effectiveness as Food Preservative. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a well-known herb widely used as spice, or in folk medicine, and in the pharmacy and food industries. Coriander seed oil is the world's second most relevant essential oil, exhibiting antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some yeasts, dermatophytes and filamentous fungi.