Covid Vaccine Side Effects

by Ray Sahelian, M.D.

As with any medical treatment we always balance the benefits versus the risks. However, in order to do so wisely, we need to be well informed about all the good vaccines can do and their shortcomings. That is the purpose of this post. Please have a discussion with your health care provider to make an informed decision before taking a Covid-19 vaccine. A Covid-19 infection can be serious and fatal; but the vaccines also have their own complications.

I have reviewed thousands of case reports on the CDC VAERS vaccine injury reporting government website; reviewed the Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca side effect reports during the trials; read countless news articles and published medical articles; and also read thousands of case reports on several online groups where people mention their reactions to the Covid-19 vaccines. I have a good understanding of the types of side effects that are occurring. I am still constantly learning and this page is regularly updated. You may also wish to Follow me on Facebook or friend me on MeWe. If you landed directly on this page I recommend first reading my article on my home page (click the blue link of my name above). As to "shedding," see the last paragraph.

Many who get the shots are having only minor side effects such as arm pain or light flu-like symptoms, and some have none. Others are having more serious reactions, especially after the second dose or after a prior Covid-19 infection. We are basically introducing toxins in our bodies (the spike proteins) and our immune system reacts by creating antiobodies against them and also launching inflammatory substances. The majority of these adverse reactions are likely due to an overreacting inflammatory response known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This SIRS reaction, perhaps a cytokine storm, can range from very mild to very severe. It can begin the very first day of the shot or begin days or weeks later as a delayed reaction (from immune T cells? is autoimmunity a concern?). Another cause of adverse effects may be due to the interaction of the spike proteins with ACE2 receptors which are found widely in the body including the skin, lungs, heart and blood vessels, mouth and gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and brain. The third cause of these vaccine side effects is a result of the interaction of spike proteins with platelets and/or endothelial cells that line the inside of blood vessels. This can lead to clotting or bleeding (low number of circulating platelets in the bloodstream). Lastly we should consider immediate or delayed release of histamine from mast cells and basophils. Below is my preliminary assessment of Covid-19 vaccine side effects; it's a work in progress. I strictly list signs and symptoms that have been reported multiple times from different people and sources.

Allergic and Anaphylactic reactions (starting within minutes or up to an hour or two)
Flushing, sweating, dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath, changes in blood pressure, palpitations, increased heart rate, throat swelling or tightness, lip and tongue swelling, and even occasionally leading to ER visits, hospitalizations, and death. Researchers should look into whether premedicating with an antihistamine would reduce the allergic response.

Common Side Effects (often starting in the evening or middle of the night)
Pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site (occasionally it can persist or get worse days later, called Covid arm). Fever (can be up to 104 F or even a little higher), sweats, chills (sometimes requiring multiple blankets to keep warm). Headache (sometimes very severe and migraine-like, occasionally described by some as the worst headache in their life). Fatigue, lethargy, exhaustion (damage to mitochondria in cells?). Body aches, muscle aches ("I feel like I got hit by a bus"). Dizziness, nausea, and malaise. A cyokine storm -- white blood cells or macrophages notice the foregn substances introduced in your body and produce cytokines -- may be part, or most, of the reason for these symptoms, at least initially. These can last from a few hours to a week or two, and sometimes much longer. I advise not to drink alcohol for the first few days. Try to take the shot on a Friday so you do not have to be at work or drive the next couple of days. I have not come across any data that the severity of symptoms has a correlation to long-term immune protection.

Less Common -- it is difficult to know how often they happen since no one is keeping accurate statistics

Skin rash and hives (it can be all over the body and last for weeks; hives are often treated with an antihistamine and/or a course of steroids), itchiness (pruritus). Easy bruising and small brown-purple spots under the skin. Sometimes a big rash and swelling develops at the injection site a few days later, or a hard lump. Swelling of face. Swelling of hands (lymphatic blockage? Leaking of fluid from blood vessels?) and feet (lymphatic blockage from swollen lymph nodes? DVT, especially if only one foot? Heart failure? Kidney issues?). Perhaps another cause of swelling is due to spike proteins disrupting the tight connection between cells that line the inner blood vessels leading to fluid leaking into tissues. Eczema flare-up. Psoriasis flare-up. Toxic epidermal necrosis, blistering and peeling of skin.

Since these vaccines have an effect on nerves, or the blood supply to the nerves (all neural tissues in the body and brain), a wide variety of mild to serious neurological symptoms occurr that have baffled doctors. Dizziness is very common, vertigo (a feeling that you, or the environment around you, is spinning), vestibular nerve damage. Tinnitus (ringing in the ears) is common and sometimes lasts weeks or longer. Sleepiness, insomnia. Tremors, uncontrollable shaking, uncontrolled movements, random muscle twitching. New onset seizures have occurred and some with existing seizure disorder (epilepsy) have noticed worsening of symtpoms. Paresthesias (abnormal or strange nerve sensations, very common), tingling in the face or facial numbness (forehead, nose, lips and chin numb), tingling in the arms, legs and feet, burning in feet, pins and needles throughout the body, sensitive skin. Loss of sensation in arms and legs, feet and toes. Weakness or numbness in legs, loss of balance, difficulty walking, falling, legs giving out (transient paralysis, inflammation of the cerebellum? cerebellar ataxia?), fainting and loss of consciousness. A high number of Bell's palsy cases (one side of face droops), confirmed in an article in the medical journal Lancet, has been reported (also twitching of one side of face). Paralysis (unable to move arms or legs), Myasthenia Gravis, Guillain Barre syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, small fiber neuropathy. Dysautonomia occurs where the nerves that regulate nonvoluntary body functions -- such as sweating, blood pressure, heart rate, bladder control, pupil dilation or constriction, and digestion -- do not work as well. I don't know the reasons for the headaches, but it is possible the spike proteins can cross the blood-brain barrier. It could be that the vessels in the brain are inflamed, or the nerves around the scalp are acting up, or there is increased intracranial pressure. The spike proteins may disturb the integrity of the cells lining the blood vessels in the brain and allow leakage of fluid into the brain causing increased pressure in the brain, and thus a severe headache. A migraine-type headache associated with weakness on one side could, in rare cases, be due to hemiplegic migraine.

Are the nerve-related issues due to non-mRNA substances in the vaccines (such as PEG), or due to spike proteins attaching to nerve cells triggering inflammatory reactions? Perhaps some of the neurological symptoms are due to tiny clots in small blood vessels that supply nerves. Or is the immune system recognizing certain cells, including nerve cells, in the body as having some proteins that look similar to the spike proteins and attacking them?

Mental, psychiatric and behavioral changes
Mood changes, anxiety, panic attacks, anhedonia, depression, aggression, anger, feeling impatient, irritability, short-tempered, brain fog, confusion, disorientation, loss of memory. Rare cases of suicidal ideations. Nursing home caretakers have mentioned that some residents become confused and less able to take care of themselves and deteriorate faster. Worsening of dementia has also been noted which makes it difficult to decide whether to administer the vaccine to those with Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia.

Eye pain, visual impairement -- blurred vision, trouble focusing, double vision (vertical or horizontal diplopia), flashes of light in the field of vision, sensitivity to light (photophobia), blindness. Swelling of eyes or eyelids(sometimes severe enough to shut the eyelids together), eye irritation, itchy eyes, watery eyes, eyelid drooping, pupil dilation (rare). Blindness is rare but could be due a blood clot in a blood vessel or an optic nerve problem, or a clot in the visual cortex, or a clot in the occipital lobe. Subconjunctival hemorrhage, bloodshot eyes (redness or bloodclot in the white of the eye, possibly from low platelets). Floaters in the eyes are infrequent.

Decreased hearing, complete hearing loss (treat with oral steroids or cortisone injection in ear?), earache / pain (stabbing), ear redness, ear swelling. Ringing in ears / tinnitus, or worsening of existing tinnitus (common, sometimes lasting weeks or months). A few people with tinnitus mention that white noise with rain sounds helps.

Oral, Nasal
Mouth sores, lip sores or burning feeling, lip swelling, tingling or twitching of lips, metallic taste in the mouth. Bumps or ulcers on the tongue, swollen taste buds and tongue feeling inflamed or burning. Pain in teeth which may be related to nerve pain. Scratchy or itchy throat, swelling of the throat. Strange sensations around the mouth which may be early Bell's palsy symptoms. Runny nose, bleeding from nose (common). Those who have had fillers injected around the mouth as part of cosmetic procedure notice temporary swelling in that area. A few report uncontrollable chattering of teeth resulting in a chipped tooth.

Shortness of breath, tightness in chest, difficulty breathing, wheezing, getting easily winded, cough, chest pain. Pulmonary embolism. Spike proteins travel to the lungs triggering an immune reaction that inflames airways and leads to shortness of breath. Many people are ending up in the ER and doctors think that they have a viral or bacterial pneumonia, which leads them being treated with antivirals or antibiotics. Would steroids be a better choice (if testing does not show a viral or baceterial infection)? It's possible those with emphysema, COPD, and asthma could have exacerbation of symptoms.

Tachycardia (rapid heart rate, very common), palpitations, heart fluttering, rapid changes in heart rate, heart rhythm disturbances, A Fib (atrial fibrillation), SVT (supraventricular tachycardia), bundle branch block; postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Spike proteins may end up in the sinoatrial node (SA) or the atrioventricular node (AV) triggering an attack by the immune system leading to changes in heart rhythm. Pericarditis and myocarditis have been reported in the young in Israel and the US military; pain on left side of chest; spike proteins may go to heart muscle tissue, or the lining of the heart, and trigger an inflammatory immune response. Fainting, lightheadedness, falling, collapsing possibly from heart rhythm disturbances, heart attack or stroke. High blood pressure including hypertensive crisis and low blood pressure potentially due to disruption of nerve conduction anywhere from the brain to the sympathetic / parasympathetic nerves of the cardiac plexus and on to heart muscle cells. Could blood pressure changes also be related to spike proteins influencing angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) receptors within blood vessels or kidneys or down-regulating ACE2 (what is the role of ACE2 inhibitor drugs)? Chest pain or tightness, heart attack (high troponin levels), ST-segment elevated myocardial infaction (STEMI). Stroke from a blood clot or bleeding can occur anywhere in the brain and cause a variety of symptoms including slurred speech, paralysis, weakness of extremities, stiff muscles, difficulty swallowing, and headache. A stroke can be triggered by very high blood pressure which the vaccines can cause. Blood clots, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, clots forming in the portal vein, splenic vein or other blood vessels in the abdomen. Swelling in legs (possibly from heart failure or blood clots). Vasculitis -- inflammation of blood vessels such as arteries, veins and capillaries -- can occur anywhere in the body. When this occurs in the arteries in the head, it can be diagnosed as temporal arteritis (steroids may help).

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (related to spike proteins binding to ACE2 receptors? damage to nerves that regulate digestion (dysautonomia)?) which, if prolonged, has led to weight loss. Stomach or abdominal cramps or pain (from ACE2 receptor blockage by spike proteins?). Loss of appetite. Feeling bloated. Abdominal pain could be due to blood clots in certain veins in the abdomen, or the mesenteric artery. Appendicitis (due to swelling of lymph nodes around the appendix?). Elevated liver enzymes, acute liver failure, autoimmune hepatitis. Rectal bleeding could be from an existing lesion in the colon, internal or external hemmorhoids, or de novo; may require colonoscopy to make sure no tumors or other issues.

Could there be a flare-up in those with diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis?

Joint pains sometimes so bad it's crippling, joint swelling or stiffness. Shoulder or arm pain leading to limited range of motion, sometimes lasting weeks, along with burning and itching in entire upper arm; numbness in the arm where the injection happened). Neck pain, spasm, tenseness or stiffness. Jaw pain, pain in the mouth or teeth. Pain in the extremities (arms, thighs, and legs), spasms in the thighs, legs or leg cramps. Hip pain, knee pain. Back pain and flank pain (due to muscle spasms? kidney issues? spinal cord inflammation? early signs of transverse myelitis?). Muscle fatigue, weakness in muscles, muscle stiffness, spasms or twitching. Bone pain. People report body aches so intense that they can hardly move for hours or days. Some have described it as the worst muscle or joint pains in their life, or like being hit by a truck. A few mention that weeks after the shots they do not have the same muscle strength or physical abilities that they used to. Shoulder injury related to vaccine administration is abbreviated as SIRVA. Some with ankylosing spondylitis or osteoarthritis may notice worsening of symptoms.

Renal / Urological
Flank pain (blood clots in kidney vessels? immune reaction against kidney cells?). Renal or kidney failure. Urinary incontinence possibly due to nerve paralysis. Urinary tract infections and prostatitis have been reported, but infrequently. Testicular pain (rare).

Swelling of lymph nodes often in the armpit of the injected arm, but sometimes above or below the clavicle or even around the neck, behind the ears and other nodes throughout the body, including groin area. Occasionally this leads to moderate to severe pain in the armpit and even some nodes swelling to the size of a golf ball. Women should wait at least two months after a Covid-19 vaccine before getting a mammogram.

Menstrual irregularities, skipped periods, spotting between periods, heavier or longer periods, severe cramping. Uterine bleeding even after menopause. I don't know if these menstrual changes and bleeding are due to hormonal, immune / inflammatory, hematological reasons, or a combination. Estrogen and progesterone are involved in menstruation. It is possible that an inflammatory process in the brain, for instance involving the hypothalamus, disturbs the delicate balance of hormone release. Inflammation is part of the ovulation process. It makes sense that vaccine-induced inflammation in the uterine lining (endometrium) would lead to spotting, heavy bleeding or painful cramps. I don't know how these vaccines influence those who have ovarian conditions, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Bruising, petechiae (small round brown-purple spots due to bleeding under the skin, red blood cells leak out from capillaries), bleeding from nose, uterine bleeding. A combination of clotting (thrombosis) and low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) has been noted which makes treatment difficult. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has occurred. Blood clots can form and/or travel to the brain, lungs, heart, abdomen, kidneys, legs, spinal cord and other places. Elevated D-dimer levels may be an indication of blood clots. Could spike proteins cause platelets to clump together causing clots and also lead to low levels of circulating platelets in the bloodstream leading to bleeding? Could the lipid nanoparticles themselves enter platelets and cause damage? Could spike proteins attach to endothelial cells (the cells lining blood vessels) and cause damage and clot formation? Various forms of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) are likely. A serious side effect confirmed by health authorities has been cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). After vaccination antibodies can target a protein in the bloodstream called platelet factor 4 (PF4) which spurs platelets into a clotting cascade. Blood clots and bleeding are significantly more common than what you hear in the news. Anyone who has a bleeding or clotting disorder, or who is on blood thinning medications (anticoagulants) such as warfarin (Coumadin), Plavix, heparin, Eliquis, Xarelto, Lovenox, should ask their doctor to read this article.

Shingles reactivation has been frequently mentioned which may be due temporary immune T cell suppression. Ocular shingles (around the eye) has been reported. It is possible the vaccines may make other infections more likely until the immune system recovers. Epstein-Barr virus reactivation? Ramsay Hunt Syndrome? Increase in urinary tractt infections?

Endocrine / Hormonal
I am still not sure how this vaccine affects those who have diabetes or thyroid issues. Or how it affects the hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thymus gland, ovaries, and testicles. I don't know yet whether it influences fertility in men or women, and whether antibodies formed against the spike proteins have cross-reactivity with syncytin reproductive proteins in sperm and ova. I have read reports of diabetics noticing a spike in blood sugar levels but I need more confirmation to be certain.

Unusual or Occurrences:
In rare instances there could be multi-system organ failure of the liver, heart, colon and kidneys. Is it possible that by chance during injection into the deltoid muscle the fluid contents go directly into a blood vessel causing a faster and more intense allergic response?
After vaccination some people, especially seniors, have fallen and broken bones or teeth, others have had large bruises as a result of a fall.
Car accidents have happened when a driver became dizzy or passed out and lost control of the car. It's unwise to give these shots in parking lots and then let people drive away a half hour later.

Some of these have been reported however not with any significant regularity to warrant to include above.

Delayed and/or Ongoing Reactions, lasting several weeks or months
Delayed hypersensitivity or reactions can occur starting days or weeks after a shot. I have come across individuals who still have ringing in the ears, tics, tremors, changes in mentrual cycles, shortness of breadth, or irregular heart rhythms after 3 months. Common delayed reactions include skin rashes and hives that can last weeks and may be controlled by steroids and/or antihistamines; dizziness, fainting; changes in heart rate and rhythm; changes in blood pressure; joint pain, muscle pain, fatigue, and a wide variety of muscular and neurological symptoms, including brain fog and memory loss. Abdominal / stomach cramps or bloating may be added to the list if I come across more cases. Fatigue could be caused by spike proteins latching on to ACE2 receptors and interfering with proper cell signaling to mitochondria -- organelles within cells that make energy in the form of ATP. It's also possible spike proteins could enter cells and become embedded in the cell membrane of mitochondria thus distubing their proper functions. We don't know how long spike proteins stay in the body, but hopefully they disintegrate within weeks. We hope the body is able to repair the damage they have done while present. Could we have long-term neurological damage and nerve-related disorders? Some people report brain fog; is it because of damage to neurons in the brain? I hope not.

Future immune system dysfunction
A few scientists have raised a concern that there is a possibility certain individuals may become prone to having future autoimmune conditions. At least a couple of dozen major protein types in our bodies have a structure similar to spike proteins and our immune system may attack such proteins on the lining of cell membranes in diferent tissues and organs. The spike proteins lodge in different cells in the body and could lead to direct future immune attack, especially after repeated exposure to the virus or future booster shots. I still need time to figure all this out. Antibody Dependent Enhancement is another concern some scientists have raised. I am all for vaccines that have been proven to be safe and effective. Sometimes when an ardent pro-vaxxer unfairly calls me an anti-vaxxer, I am tempted to called them a FAP... future autoimmune patient. I'm too nice, I wouldn't do it.

More than 4,000 deaths have been reported to the CDC, most of them occurring within a few days after the vaccine, and some within minutes or hours. It is likely that many more deaths have not been reported. Deaths have occurred in teenagers, including a 15 year old boy in Colorado, VAERS ID 1242573-1, and a 16 year old girl in Wisconsin. It has been difficult to keep accurate statistics.

Tens of thousands have visited urgent care centers, rushed to emergency rooms, or have been admitted to a hospital related to post vaccine adverse reactions. It's nearly impossible to know how many people have called their doctor or made an office appointment. Sometimes I wonder whether Moderna and Pfizer had enough time to determine the ideal dosage for different age groups, male versus female, someone who weighs 100 pounds or 300 pounds. They did not have enough time to determine the ideal interval between doses. Maybe the second dose should be delayed another couple of weeks to minimize side effects?

These vaccines have not been thoroughly tested in: Persons over the age of 85. Seniors tend to not mount much of an immune response after vaccination. It remains unclear whether giving a shot does more good than harm, especially those over the age of 80 or 90.
Those younger than age 16. Until we determine the full spectrum of short- and long-term adverse reactions in adults, it is premature to test these in kids. There is consideration in having those ages 12 to 15 taking them. What if we find out more kids die or are harmed from the Covid-19 vaccines than catching the infection itself?.
Individuals with prior Covid-19 infection.
Patients who have unstable medical conditions and are on multiple medications. Those who have sickle cell disease, thalassemia, polymyalgia rheumatica, inflammatory bowel disease, significant cirrhosis, or temporal arteritis. Since the vaccines effect heart rate and rhythm, those with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, congestive heart failure, or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) should be very careful.
Individuals who have unstable psychiatric conditions, including those with anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, or psychosis.

Autoimmune diseases or conditions. Although some report no serious reactions, others with a variety of autoimmune diseases notice flare-ups requiring a course of steroids. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis (joint pains may get worse), celiac disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, Graves' disease, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus), and Sjogren's syndrome (dry eyes and mouth). It would be unwise to take these vaccines by those who have antiphospholipid syndrome or other hypercoagulable conditions.

Immune suppressed individuals (about 3% of US citizens) rarely mount an adequate immune response; these include organ transplant patients or those on corticosteroids (prednisone, Medrol) and immune suppressing medications such as CellCept, cyclosporine, azathioprine, Sirolimus. In early May it was reported that four fully vaccinated immune compromised individuals died from Covid-19 infection. Why subject such patients to the dangers of a vaccine when the benefits are minimal and temporary, at best.

Various cancers including myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia. The immune system of many cancer patients (breast, lung, prostate, kidney, bladder, colon, etc.), especially those undergoing chemotherapy, is compromised and may not form adequate antibody levels. The Covid-19 shots temporarily suppress immune function and some people have wondered whether this could allow cancer cells to grow faster... I have not yet seen such proof.

Seizure disorders, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, peripheral neuropathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Tourette syndrome, and other neurological disorders may be worsoned. Would someone who is barely controlled with anti-seizure medications have severe, difficult to control seizures? Neurologists should be fully aware of seizure onset post Covid vaccine shots. Is the Covid-19 vaccine safe in those with Parkinson's disease or others with neurological disorders?
Individuals with Hepatitis B or C, or HIV or those with alcoholic liver disease or cirrhosis.

Pregnancy and nursing. We do not know the outcome in babies after birth if the mother has been vaccinated during pregnancy. We first need to determine whether spike proteins cross through breast milk or the placenta. A pregnant woman, 38, suffered disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) 16 days after vaccination. She died along with her fetus, VAERS case number 1168104. There have been reports of miscarriages after the shots but it is difficult to confirm a correlation. If spike proteins cross through the placenta damage could be done to the fetus, for instance neurologically. A mother who had her second dose of Pfizer vaccine breastfed her 5 month old infant. The next day he had a fever, was taken to the ER and found to have elevated liver enzymes; was hospitalized, diagnosed with TTP, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and died. The VAERS ID number is 1166062.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Mastocytosis or Lyme disease. I would not be surprised if fatigue becomes worse in those with CFS.

As to ways to reduce some of the above symptoms, I do not have a good answer yet. Perhaps by reducing the overall inflammatory process in the body through anti-inflammatory foods, fresh fruits and vegetables, fish or fish oils, outdoor walks with sun exposure and/or vitamin D, vitamin C, and deep sleep. I have read posts online, and some research articles, that ivermectin could be of benefit, and that it could block the attachment of spike proteins to ACE2 receptors. Currently I have not studied this topic enough to have a well-informed opinion. India is handing out ivermectin to some of its citizens as a preventative and as a treatment. I have not come aross any studies on pine needle tea which proponents claim heals from spike protein damage and prevents shedding -- I am not sure how they would measure that.

More factors to consider:
When the vaccine companies claim that their product is safe and effective in preventing Covid-19 illness, they rarely mention all the people who had unpleasant side effects, had severe discomfort or pain, had loss of mobility, lost time from work, had adverse reactions that lasted weeks or became permanent, are now potentially exposed to future immune system dysfunction, ended up in the ER, were hospitalized, incurred out of pocket medical expenses, or actually have died as a result of the shots. Eight percent of those who got their Moderna or Pfizer shots have missed their second dose. Did some of them have moderate or severe side effects that influenced their decicion?

Ray Sahelian, M.D.
May 16, 2021
Shedding or transmission: I am often asked what I think about Covid-19 vaccine shedding -- unvaccinated people getting side effects such as flu-like symptoms, headache, fatigue, fever, nausea, diarrhea, rash, nose bleeding, or uterine bleeding -- after spending a lot of time around newly Covid-19 vaccinated people. I am not aware of any published studies that have looked into it. It seems farfetched but not impossible; stranger things have happened in medicine and science. I would like researchers to look into the respiratory route as a possibility. Scientists could analyze the exhaled air of newly vaccinated people (within the first day or two) to see if any spike proteins, or fragments, are present. If they are exhaled, then the next step is to find out whether someone who is close to them inhales enough of these spike proteins to have substantial amounts circulating in their blood stream to cause noticeable adverse reactions. There are a lot of ifs here and it would be nice if researchers looked into it to allay the shedding concerns of some people. A friend who is a scientist, and skeptic, had mentioned to me 2 months ago that he had gotten ill even though he had been very careful and had stayed distant from people. He had a few days of fever, chills, and fatigue. He had tested negative for Covid-19. When I brought up the topic of shedding he recalled that his symptoms started four days after his mom, who lives in the same house but rarely goes out, had the Moderna vax. He recalled another time a month ago when he came down with similar symptoms and it was soon after having a long conversation a few feet away from a coworker who had just had her Moderna Covid-19 vaccine. Again he tested negative for Covid-19. Coincidences? I need a lot more evidence, but, again, I can't rule out until scientists look into this matter. Spike proteins have been found in the urine of some patients with a Covid-19 infection. It is possible spike proteins could pass through fluids during intercouse, but in enough quantity to have an effect? Or pass by exchange of body fluids... for how long after vaccination? My best guess right now is about one to two week. Another possiblity is that someone who recently had a shot by chance was an asymptomatic carrier of the virus and passed it on to a person near them. A Phizer report vaguely mentions the respiratory route, inhalation, as a possibility. As I come across more and more stories of people mentioning their reactions after encountering those who have been recently vaccinated, I am becoming more open to the possiblity of such transmission. Time will tell.