Lupin seed information
January 2 2016 by Ray Sahelian, M.D.

Lupin is the name for a family of plants that includes the Texas bluebonnet. Lupins have been grown and the seed used as food since ancient times. Food scientists have revealed that the Australian sweet lupin can replace fat in meat, lower cholesterol, decrease blood glucose levels, improve bowel health, lower the risk of bowel cancer and taste good too. The small creamy-colored Australian sweet lupin is the fifth-largest crop in Australia and is predominantly exported to the international animal feed market; the remainder is fed to domestic cattle. Like the soybean - which has been indicated in the lowering of cholesterol, the prevention of heart disease, the stabilisation of blood sugar levels and the risk reduction of bowel cancer - the Australian sweet lupin is very high in protein and nutrients. But with its lower levels of fat and higher fiber content, the lupin has even more to offer than its high-profile soy cousin. Australian sweet lupin fiber is indicated in improving bowel health and potentially lowering the risk of bowel cancer. Australia is currently the world's biggest producers of lupins, which are similar to soybeans as a product. Many companies have used lupin flour to cut the amount of butter and eggs used in cakes, pastries and confectionery.

Lupin side effects and caution
Allergy to lupin flour has been reported. Lupin kernel flour is used in human food for its high quality nutritional and functional qualities. The frequency of crossed allergy between lupin flour and peanuts, both members of the family of Leguminosae, is strong, since 68% of patients who are allergic to peanut have shown positive reactions to lupin flour.

Lupin Enriched Bread and Appetite Control, weight loos
Lupin-enriched bread increases satiety and reduces energy intake acutely1,2,3
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006.
Lupin kernel flour is a novel food ingredient that is rich in protein and fiber. The objective was to investigate the effects of lupin kernel flour–enriched bread on satiety and energy intake in humans. Two randomized controlled crossover trials were performed to compare the acute effects of lupin bread with those of white bread. Results: The Lupin bread breakfast resulted in significantly higher self-reported satiety and lower energy intake at lunchthan did the WB breakfast. The lupin bread lunch resulted in a significantly lower within-meal energy intake at lunch than did the WB lunch. In study 2, compared with the WB breakfast, the lupin bread breakfast significantly altered the 3-h postmeal plasma ghrelin response and resulted in significantly lower mean 3-h plasma ghrelin concentrations. Conclusion: A novel food enriched in protein and fiber derived from lupin kernel flour significantly influences energy intake acutely.

Food Funct. 2014. Pasta supplemented with isolated lupin protein fractions reduces body weight gain and food intake of rats and decreases plasma glucose concentration upon glucose overload trial.

Bread enriched with seeds from the lupin plant can help people feel more full and eat less. Protein and fiber enrichment of bread with lupin kernel flour has the potential to influence appetite and reduce energy intake, at least in the short term.

Lupin Research
Effects of blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) in organic layer diets and supplementation with foraging material on egg production and some egg quality parameters.
Poult Sci. 2005.
Six groups of organically fed hens were studied for egg production, feed parameters, and egg quality from 20 to 31 wk of age. Treatments were 3 diets (0, 15, and 25% blue lupin) with or without supplements of foraging material (whole carrots and corn silage). Increased lupin content increased nonstarch polysaccharides content and reduced methionine content below the hens' requirement. Egg production at 31 wk was lower with the 25% lupin diet without (69%) and with foraging material (76%) compared with the other diets (approximately 90%). Egg weight was highest with the 0% lupin diet (64 g), and 15% lupin diet (60 g), whereas the 25% lupin diet without and with foraging material resulted in egg weights of 58 and 56 g, respectively. Feed intakes were approximately 113 g of diet/ hen per d and 113 g of supplement/hen per d in 0 and 15% lupin treatments, respectively. Feeding the 25% lupin diet significantly reduced diet intake to approximately 91 g, and increased supplement intake to 118 g for the treatment with foraging material. Eggs from treatments with foraging material had significantly higher sulfur-like aftertaste in sensory evaluation. Yolk color became significantly lighter and more yellow with lupin content, but darker and less greenish with foraging material. Increased lupin levels decreased albumen DM, whereas foraging material had no effect. Inclusion of 25% lupin in layer diets is only recommended when supplying some methionine source, as egg production and quality parameters are dramatically impaired. However, supplement of foraging material significantly improves egg production.

Effect of fat replacement by inulin or lupin -kernel fibre on sausage patty acceptability, post-meal perceptions of satiety and food intake in men.
Br J Nutr. 2004.
The present study examined whether replacing fat with inulin or lupin -kernel fibre influenced palatability, perceptions of satiety, and food intake in thirty-three healthy men (mean age 52 years, BMI 27.4 kg/m(2)), using a within-subject design. On separate occasions, after fasting overnight, the participants consumed a breakfast consisting primarily of either a full-fat sausage patty (FFP) or a reduced-fat patty containing inulin (INP) or lupin kernel fibre (LKP). Breakfast variants were alike in mass, protein and carbohydrate content; however the INP and LKP breakfasts were 36 and 37 % lower in fat and 15 and 17 % lower in energy density respectively compared with the FFP breakfast. The participants rated their satiety before breakfast then evaluated patty acceptability. Satiety was rated immediately after consuming the breakfast, then over the subsequent 4.5 h whilst fasting. Food consumed until the end of the following day was recorded. All patties were rated above 'neither acceptable or unacceptable', however the INP rated lower for general acceptability and the lupin kernel fiber lower for flavour than the FFP. The LKP breakfast rated more satiating than the INP and FFP breakfasts. Total fat intake was 18 g lower on the day of the INP and 26 g lower on the day of the LKP breakfast than the FFP breakfast day. Energy intake was lower (1521 kJ) only on the day of the INP breakfast. Both inulin and lupin kernel fibre appear to have potential as fat replacers in meat products and for reducing fat and energy intake in men.

Anticholinergic toxicity associated with lupin seed ingestion: case report.
Eur J Emerg Med. 2004.
We describe a case of acute poisoning in a 51-year-old female patient who presented to the Emergency Department with weakness, anxiety, dry mouth, bilateral mydriasis and lid drop. In differential diagnosis, botulism, Guillain-Barre syndrome and myasthenia gravis were considered, as well as cerebral haematoma because of a cranial injury a week before. Symptoms, which resolved within 12 hours without any therapy, were instead related to the ingestion of lupin seeds.

Antimutagenic activity of phenolic compounds, oligosaccharides and quinolizidinic alkaloids from Lupinus campestris seeds.
Food Addit Contam. 2003.
There are some foods that contain mutagenic or carcinogenic agents, some of which occur naturally and others that may be formed during preparation or cooking. Several foods such as legumes, also contain natural antimutagens and/or anticarcinogens. Lupine is one such legume that contains high amounts of protein (40%) and oils (14%). About 90 species of lupine have been reported throughout Mexico. However, the use of this crop as a source of food has been limited by the presence of antinutritional agents such as phenolic compounds (PC), carbohydrates (CH) and quinolizidinic alkaloids (Qas). It has also been suggested that consuming these compounds can affect human health and may even reduce the risk of disease. L. campestris seeds have 11 mg catechin equivalent g(-1) seed coat; 120 mg g(-1) seeds and 2 mg g(-1) seeds of PC, CH and Qas, respectively. 1-NP mutagenicity was inhibited by 86% for PC, 76% for CH and 75% for Qas at concentrations of 200, 512 and 13.6 microg/tube, respectively.