Wikipedia human body, basic terms and definitions of the human body and brain


HUMAN BODY and Science of Medicine
Acid reflux, esophagitis

Adam's apple, piece of thyroid cartilage

Adenoids Pharyngeal tonsils are commonly called these

Allergen any substance that causes an allergic reaction

Ambulance From a French phrase for "mobile hospital", it's a vehicle for transporting the sick or injured

Amniotic fluid, Amneocentesis, In this pre-birth procedure, a small amount of fluid is withdrawn from the sac in the uterus and tested

Analgesic any medicine, such as aspirin, that reduces or eliminates pain

Antidote remedy which counteracts a swallowed poison

Antiseptic also disinfectant, carbolic acid by Lister

Apnea is the temporary cessation of breathing

Aromatherapy Roses, jasmine, and lavender have been used in this "therapy" as calming agents

Autoclave reason surgical instruments are autoclaved is to sterilize them

Bellevue although a general hospital for 250 years, it is commonly thought of as NYC's lunatic asylum

Biopsy removal of a piece of tissue from a living body usually for diagnostic study, "Needle" is one type of this procedure in which tissue is taken from the body for a microscopic exam

Brain lobes are the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal

Bronchi Air enters the lungs through these two tubes which are extensions of the trachea

Calisthenics From the Greek for "beautiful strong", it's an exercise program that will shape you up

Capsule It can contain astronauts or medications

CAT scan Used especially in diagnosing brain disorders, stands for "computerized axial tomography

Clone An exact copy of a cell, a gene or an organism is called this

Computed tomography (CT scan) or computed axial tomography (CAT scan), medical imaging procedure that utilizes computer-processed X-rays to produce tomographic images or 'slices' of specific areas of the body. 1970s

Collagen fibrous protein injected to fill in wrinkles and acne scars as well as to plump lips. When boiled, this fibrous protein found in bones & connective tissue dissolves & forms gelatin

Dermis Also called the corium, it's the thicker layer of skin under the epidermis

Disinfectant or antiseptic

Dorsal The opposite of ventral; this term refers to the back region of animals
Dosimeter, measure exposure to xray

Dyalisis This process removes salt from sea water & in artificial kidneys waste from the blood

Electrolysis This is the permanent removal of unwanted hair by destroying its roots with electric current

Endocrine system The ovaries are part of both the reproductive system & this system which produces hormones

Endorphin A natural pain-killer, this "oxygenous morphine" is released by the brain during body stress

Enzymes Proteins such as pepsin & rennin that act as catalysts in the body are termed these

Epiglottis flap which closes over the trachea when you swallow

Ether Crawford Long is credited with being the first to use this for surgical anesthesia

Fainting A person who feels like he's going to faint should lie down or sit with his head between his knees

Glycogen carbohydrate is stored in the liver & provides the body with a reserve of energy

Hay Fever allergy to pollen, some 20 million Americans are sufferers of this, called the most common allergy in the U.S., rhinitis caused by allergy to pollen

Heimlich maneuver- This "hug" is recommended as effective method to remove object blocking windpipe

Hiccough spasm of the diaphragm is pronounced the same whether it ends in "cough" or "cup"
Hippocrates - Hippocratic oath "I swear by Apollo the physician, and Aesculapius, Hygeia, & Panacea,..."

Humors Greeks thought a man's body had 4 humors: phlegm, yellow bile, black bile & blood

Hyperventilation It's defined as rapid deep breathing, which causes an excess of oxygen & a shortage of CO2 in the body

Ingrown toe nail

Iodine A tincture of this halogen is used as an antiseptic on cuts & scratches

Lactose Sweet acidophilus milk contains bacteria that help break down this milk sugar

Leech used by primitives for blood letting, surgeons now use this worm to reattach severed body parts, These blood-sucking worms are used in medicine today to drain hematomas

Maggots are fly larvae

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize internal structures of the body in detail. MRI makes use of the property of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body.

Mesomorph A lean, small-boned person is an ectomorph; an endomorph is round; and this type is muscular

Motion Sickness Dramamine or phenergan taken about an hour before traveling will help prevent this

Narcolepsy sleep walking

Ovulation When a woman's basal body temperature rises, it's normally a sign that this has just occurred

Palatine tonsils are the tonsils that can be seen on the left and right sides at the back of the throat.

Paralysis The term palsy applies to certain forms of this condition, which can be partial or complete

Parapsychology Once called psychical research, the study of psychic phenomena is now called this

Patellar reflex kneecap

Pica This word can refer to a size of type on a typewriter or an unnatural appetite for clay or chalk

Pigeon toe is a condition which causes the toes to point inward

Plantar fascia for feet

Polysaccharides are cellulose, glycogen are starch

Psychosomatic Term for a physical illness caused or worsened by psychological factors

Rapid eye movement Nightmares occur during REM sleep, which is defined as this, Normally, the periods of this type of sleep are short early in the night, then lengthen

Renin, an enzyme that breaks down protein, is secreted by cells in kidney

Rhinoscope examine nose

RNA nucleic acid occurs in 3 forms: messenger, ribosomal & transfer

Rotator Cuff tear A partial tear of the rotator cuff around shoulder joint can cause painful arc movements
Scoliosis curvature of the spine

Septum in nose can deviate

Sinus You have 4 pairs of these air-filled passages, 2 in the forehead, 2 in the cheekbones
Sleep apnea overweight heavy snorers are prone to this disorder in which breathing stops for short periods

Smelling salts key ingredient ammonium carbonate used to revive a person who has fainted

Spirograph to measure pulmonary function tests

Sterilization a steam or gas autoclave is used for this process

Sting of insect A paste made with baking soda cooking ingredient is recommended to soothe the pain of an insect sting

Styptic Pencil If you cut yourself while shaving, you may want to use this stick of alum to stop the bleeding

Thermometer Carl Wunderlich introduced the use of this instrument to modern medicine in the 1850s

Tongue taste buds distinguish 4 basic tastes: salty, bitter, sweet and sour, The taste buds that sense sweetness are on the tip

Trachea The esophagus is your food pipe & this is your windpipe

Triage determining priority of patients

Vaccine comes from the Latin for cow

Umbilical cord about 2' long at birth, it ran from your mom's placenta to your navel

Water comprises about 62% of the weight of an average man; about 6% less in women


BLOOD and Blood vessels, Heart and circulatory system

Aneurysm, dilatation an artery, arteriosclerosis is one cause of this bulging & thinning in the wall of a blood vessel or the heart

Aorta Except for the pulmonary, the body's major arteries all branch out from this one

Artificial heart In 1982 the Jarvik-7, the first permanent one of these, was implanted in patient Barney Clark

Blood groups, Of the 4, AB blood group is the universal recipient

Blood poisoning, septicemia

Capillaries smallest blood-carrying tubes in the body link arteries to veins

Carotid The 4 principal arteries of the head & neck are all called this

Corpuscle From the Latin for "body", it's a free-moving cell such as an erythrocyte or leukocyte

Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin by thrombin, blood clots or coagulates

Hemoglobin A healthy red blood cell in your body has about 300 mil. of these oxygen-carrying molecules

Hemolysis is the release of Hemoglobin protein pigment from blood cells

Hemophilia Queen Victoria passed this hereditary blood disease to many of her royal descendants

Jugular veins The 4 large veins that return blood to the heart from the head & neck

Mitral valve Shaped like a bishop's hat, the valve between the heart's left ventricle & left atrium is called this

Phlebitis, an inflammation of veins, usually affects these extremities, Legs

Red blood cells have no nucleus & do not contain genetic information
Scab blood clot on surface of one's skin

Serology study of blood

Septal Defect Developed before birth, a septal defect is a hole in the heart

Serum Take the fibrinogen out of blood plasma & you're left with a fluid called this

Sickle cell About 1 in 400 African-Americans has this hereditary disease affecting the hemoglobin

Vena Cava Blood enters the right atrium of the heart through these two veins, one superior, the other inferior

White blood cells reject transplanted organs, doctors suppress these blood cells


BONES, tendon, ligaments - Babies have more than 300, while adults have only 206

Coccyx another name for your tailbone
Ear, incus or anvil, malleus or hammer, stirrup
Zygomatic bones, cheek bones,
They're also known as your zygomatic bones, & high ones are considered especially attractive

Clavicle or collarbone is a long bone of short length that serves as a strut between the scapula and the sternum. a turkey's wishbone,

Fracture A closed fracture is also called a simple fracture; an open fracture is better known as Compound

Hip joint Of the 3 kinds of movable joints, the hip joints are ball and socket type

Humerus It's the longest bone in the arm followed by radius and ulna

Mandible The only mobile bone of the face. The movable lower jaw is the mandible; the fixed upper jaw is called Maxilla

Occipital bone spinal cord passes through a opening in the occipital bone, the back plate of the skull

Patella knee cap

Phalanges Extending off the metacarpals are these bones that form the fingers

Rickets is caused by inadequate exposure to sunlight or a lack of vitamin D the diet

Spine The cervical spine has 7, the thoracic spine - 12, the lumbar spine - 5, the sacrum - 5, & the coccyx - 4 vertebrae

Tendons connect muscles to bones, & Ligament bind the joints

Thoracic Of the approximately 33 bones called vertebrae, 12 of them in the upper back are classified as this

Tibia shinbone connected to femur by cartilage, a synovial cavity and ligaments

Vertabrae There are 33 of these bones in the body including 7 in the neck & 12 in the chest region



Leukemia is marked by an uncontrolled proliferation of white blood cells

PAP test for cervical cancer was devised by & named for Dr. George Papanicolaou


The small bone Stirrup, one of the Ossicles, exerts force on a thin membrane called the Oval window (membrane forming one of the boundaries between the middle & the inner ear), transmitting sound pressure information into the inner ear. The inner ear can be thought of as two organs: the Semicircular canals which serve as the body's balance organ and the Cochlea (organ of corti in this snail-like structure of the inner ear contains the true receptors of sound) which serves as the body's microphone, converting sound pressure impulses from the outer ear into electrical impulses which are passed on to the brain via the auditory nerve. Cochlear implant as hearing aid. Earlobe made up of fat, it's the loosely hanging lower part of the auricle. Eustachian tube, helps to ensure equal pressure on both sides of the eardrum
The true organ of hearing is housed in this spiral-shaped structure of the inner ear

  Ossicles are the three smallest bones in the human body, the Malleus hammer, the Incus anvil and the Stapes. Stapedius, the smallest muscle in body, controls the Stapes, the smallest bone.
  Tympanic membrane.

Cerumen it attracts dust and dirt before they can damage the eardrum
Otorhinolaryngologist specializes in treating these three body parts ear, nose, throat ENT

Tinnitus term for a ringing of the ears comes from a Latin word meaning "tinkling"



Cataract In the 1700s, Jacques Daviel performed surgery on these clouded lenses in the eye

Color blindness Common name for monochromatism, which makes the world seem black, white & gray. In a 1794 paper John Dalton gave the first description of this optical condition

Hyperopia, the opposite of myopia, is commonly called Farsightedness

Lacrimal glands You have many sweatglands, but only 2 lacrimal glands

Ophthalmoscope In 1851 Hermann von Helmholtz invented this instrument for examining the eye's interior

Optic nerve This nerve consisting of about a million fibers connects the eyeball to the brain

Retina can detach from choroid, middle part of eye Light flashes in the field of vision may mean this optic tissue has become detatched. After light enters the eye, it focuses an image on this tissue which contains the rods and cones.

Strabismus common in babies, this ocular condition can improve spontaneously, tho rarely so,  Lazy eye, wandering eye, cross eye



Bile Duct The common bile duct is formed by the cystic duct from the gallbladder & the hepatic duct from the liver

Duodenum digestive juices are very active in this part of the human small intestine that's joined to the stomach, The most common ulcers are those that affect the stomach, or this part of the small intestine

Esophagus This tube that carries food from throat to stomach is the narrowest part of the digestive tract

Liver largest internal organ

Pancreas Organ that contains special cell clusters called the islets of Langerhans

Pharynx connects mouth to esophagus, It's the tube that connects your nose & mouth with your larynx & esophagus

Small intestine This section of the digestive tract is divided into the duodenum, jejunum & ileum

Stomach When this organ churns & makes perisstaltic waves, some people say it's "growling"



Alzheimers degenerative disease of memory loss may be caused by a gene on chromosome 21

Chromosome In 1956 scientists determined a normal human cell has 46 chromosomes

Clone, genetic duplicate

Dizygotic twins are more commonly known by brotherly name Fraternal

Genetics dominant, recessive, mutation

Genome sequencing, is a laboratory process that determines the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.

Heredity passing of characteristics from Mom & Dad to Junior is called

Human Genome Project

Identical type of twins that have the same generic makeup

Meiosis 4 cells

Mitosis 2 cells

Nucleic acid is a chain of nucleotides bonded chemically that control cellular activity

Oncogene when "switched on", this disease results in humans Cancer

Watson and Crick 1962 nobel physiology, To figure out structure of DNA, Watson & Crick used the scientific equivalent of Tinker Toys


GLAND or organ, hormone

Adrenalin This hormone, which helps the body adjust to sudden stress, is also called epinephrine

Calcitonin lowers levels of calcium in blood

Exocrine gland sweat and tears

Gallbladder next to liver

Glucose tolerance test is commonly used to diagnose this insulin deficiency disorder Diabetes

Heart tricuspid insufficiency is valve failure. Mitral valve. Pacemaker device implanted to control irregular heart beats. Endocardium is a thin membrane that lines the interior of this organ. Ventricles either of two lower chambers of the heart that pump blood into the arteries

Hypothalamus monitors your body temperature by using the temperature of blood as a control

Kidney, nephrons,

Lacrimal gland for tearing

Insulin In 1921 Banting & Best controlled diabetes in dogs with insulin; This pancreatic hormone was synthesized in the mid-1960s by American, German, and Chinese researchers

Liver largest internal organ

Ovaries produce estrogen and the other important hormone progesterone hormone

Parathyroid glands regulate the blood level of phosphates & calcium necessary for bone growth

Pineal gland Descartes called this gland "the seat of the rational soul"

Pituitary gland, master gland is joined to the hypothalamus, Gigantism and acromegaly are anterior lobe disorders of this gland. In women the hormone prolactin increases production of mother's milk. This gland which regulates growth is also called the hypophysis.

Sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance which lubricates your hair and keeps it soft
Skin integumentary system, the body's largest organ

Spleen destroys 200 billion red blood cells each day Though associated with ill temper, this organ actually produces antibodies, purplish lymphatic organ is a major filtering element for the blood

Stomach, also a gland, secretes a hormone called gastrin

Thyroid gland controls cell metabolism has 2 lobes, 1 on each side of trachea, The body's cell metabolism is controlled by hormones from this gland in the front of the neck

Uterus - fertilized egg travels to the uterus and implants itself there



Anthrax the bacillus of this cattle disease was the 1st germ known to cause infectious disease

Botulism oil containing garlic can cause this type of food poisoning unless it's kept refrigerated

Bubonic plague is a zoonotic disease, circulating mainly among small rodents and their fleas, and is one of three types of bacterial infections caused by Yersinia pestis.

Chickenpox varicella, Of measles, mumps or chicken pox, the one for which no vaccine is generally available1990

DPT shot protects against diptheria, tetanus and pertussis, which is better known as whopping cough

HIV AZT 1987 this drug became the first approved by the FDA for use in combating the AIDS virus

Legionaire's There had been epidemics of this lung disease before it was first identified in 1976 in Pennsylvania

Malaria plasmodia are parasites that mosquitos pass to man causing this disease. Span. missionaries in Peru found a substance in the bark of the Cinchona tree that treats this disease

Mononucleosis Both the Epstein-Barr virus & the cytomegalovirus cause this

Malaria A week or two after the bite of an Anopheles mosquito, this disease's symptoms may appear

Mosquito This insect, whose name is Spanish for "little fly", carries malaria, encephalitis, and yellow fever

Mumps childhood viral disease that causes swelling of the parotid glands

Pneumonia The walking type of this disease is caused by mycoplasma bacteria

Polio neither of these 2 developers of polio vaccines won Nobel Prize  Salk or Sabin. The first was by Jonas Salk 1955, injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated poliovirus. Human trials of Sabin's vaccine began in 1957 and it was licensed in 1962.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever transmitted by tick

Smallpox was an infectious disease unique to humans, last case in 1977. In the 18th century about 60 million people died from this disease for which a vaccine was found in 1796

Stroptococcus bacterium is responsible for many infections including strep throat & scarlet fever

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws, pinta, and bejel.

Tetanus shot to prevent lockjaw

Trichinosis parasitic worms in undercooked pork can cause this disease in humans

Vaccinate or inoculate To introduce the virus of a disease into the body in order to cure, immunize or experiment

Whooping cough In 1906 Jules Bordet discovered Bacillus pertussis, the bacterium that causes this

Yellow Fever disease transmited by the Aedes Aegypti mosquto brought to America on slave ships


MEDICATION and drugs, chemicals

Mortar and Pestle grinding tool and receptacle commonly seen on signs indicating a drug store

Anesthetic It's a drug that causes a temporary loss of sensation; novocain is a "local" one

Barbiturate In 1903, barbital became the first of this type of drug

Betadine, used as a skin antiseptic, is a solution of povidone and Iodine

Diosgenin The Mexican yam yields diosgenin, a source for this arthritis-relieving steroid, cortisone

Dramamine Anti-allergy drug first found to help motion sickness when a patient took it before riding a streetcar

Minoxidil used for high blood pressure, this drug, the key ingredient in Rogaine, can stimulate hair growth

Motrin In 1984 this painkiller found in Advil was approved for over-the-counter sale in the U.S.

MSG Chinese restaurant syndrome is a short-lived illness caused by eating this flavor enhancer mono sodium glutamate

Novocaine made in 1905

Penicillin The world's first antibiotic; it was discovered in 1929 Fleming discovered penicillin in a culture of staphylococcus bacteria

Retin-A 1988 this prescription acne cream was found to reverse the effects of sun-induced wrinkles

Sacharin This artificial sweetner has been associated with bladder cancer in animal experiments

Sodium Pentathal Better-known name of the anesthetic thiopental, also called truth serum



Calcium Though this mineral is needed for building bones & teeth, megadoses can cause extreme lethargy

Iron This mineral has an important role in the formation of myoglobin in muscles

Sodium Half a cup of cottage cheese has as much of this element linked to hypertension as 32 potato chips


MUSCLES, tendons and ligaments - About 40% of your body weight consists of 100s of these contracting tissues

Abductor muscles used to move a limb away from the central line of the body

Biceps felt when you "make a muscle", raises the forearm, The brachii in the arm and the femorus in the thigh are examples of these two-headed muscles
Diaphragm spasms, hiccup

Gluteal muscles are a group of four muscles. Gluteus maximus is the body's largest, Some of these muscles are minimus some are maximus

Isometric In this type of exercise, muscles are contracted against resistance without movement of the joints

Jaws are clenched when the temporalis muscles contract

Rectus femoris & the biceps femoris muscles are located in this part of the body, thigh

Tendon surgeon who performs a tenotomy cuts a tendon to relieve problems caused by muscle shortening

Tongue The hypoglossal nerve controls its many movements, including wagging



Alzheimer's This progressive, degenerative disease of the brain is the leading cause of senile dementia

Brain is only 2% of human body weight, it uses up to 25% of oxygen in the blood

Brain waves n 1929 Hans Berger first recorded these on paper

Central Nervous System Collectively, the brain & spinal cord are known as this system

Cerebrum longitudinal fissure is the deep groove that separates the hemispheres of this part of the brain

Concussion It can be a blow to the head, or the resulting brain injury that produces brief unconsciousness

Dura Mater Latin for "hard mother" it's the outermost membrane covering the brain

Lumbago is a general term for achiness in lower back

Multiple Sclerosis In the U.S. there are 400,000 known cases of this disease of the nervous system abbreviated MS

Neuron there are over 10 billion of these cells in the brain, each part of the brain having its own type

Occipital lobe is devoted to Vision

Sciatic nerve Originating in the spinal cord & running down the back of the thigh, it's the largest nerve in the body

Solar Plexus It's the network of nerve fibers & ganglia at the upper part of the back of the abdomen

Spina bifida incomplete closing of embryonic neural tube

St Vitus dance named for him is really the disease chorea

Thalamus acts as a relay device between the senses & cerebral cortex

Tourette's syndrome This syndrome is characterized by involuntary tics, odd noises & shouted obscenities



Ailurophobia is the fear of these pets Cats

One suffering from bruxomania unconsciously gnashes teeth

In a 1987 hit Whitney Houston showed signs of choreomania when she wanted to do dance with somebody

A dipsomaniac craves alcohol, not guacamole

A lycomaniac has a howling time believing he is a wolf

Megalomania From the Greek for "great", it's the delusion of wealth, power or omnipotence



Blister A collection of fluid beneath the outer layer of skin that can be caused by sunburn or a tight shoe

Adipose tissue From the Latin word for "fat", it's the technical term for fat tissue

Callus From constantly using a pencil, you can develop this hardening of the skin. callus is a toughened area of skin which has become relatively thick and hard in response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation

Cellulite is the dimpled appearance of skin caused by fat deposits that are just below the surface of the skin.

Corn It’s the “grainy” name for a hard, painful growth of skin on or between the toes

Demabrasion It's the removal of skin by sanding to remove tattoos or to improve skin scarred by acne

Dermatologist Type of doctor who's an expert in treating acne or removing a mole

Diaper rash produced by bacterial action, the chief cause of diaper rash NH3, Dr. Spock says this common form of infant dermatitis "is mostly caused by ammonia"

Epidermis Because there are no blood vessels in this layer of skin, nutrition is supplied by a tissue fluid, This outermost skin layer may be five times thicker on the palms & soles than on the rest of the body

Hives common name for urticaria, a rash characterized by small red bumps

Mole watch for changes in these dark skin blemishes that are clusters of melanocytes, not rodents

Plantar warts are found only on feet

Sebaceous During adolescence, acne is caused by an overabundance of oil produced by these glands

Skin grafts often involve the replacement of these two layers of skin, epidermis and dermis

Soap was used as a medicine from 600 B.C. until 2nd century A.D., when people began to wash with it

Subcutaneous under skin

Vitiligo , a common disorder, patches of skin lose pigmentry


TEETH, canine, incisors, plaque. Your deciduous ones usually appear at about 6 months, your permanent ones at about 6 years

Bridge Term for a partial denture

Buck teeth - Large front teeth protruding over the others; the phrase may come from buck, the adult male of some animals, such as rabbits—which have this type of front teeth.

Calculus  hard yellowish tartar found on teeth sounds like a mathematical matter

Canine These teeth are found between your lateral incisors & your first pre-molars

Crowns put on front teeth are often made of porcelain; those put on back teeth, of this precious metal Gold

Deciduous adjective used to describe your first set of teeth and plants that shed their leaves seasonally

Dentin of the 4 basic tissues, the one that makes up the bulk of a tooth, Harder than bone but softer than enamel, it's the yellowish tissue that makes up the bulk of a tooth

Endodontics It's the brand of dentistry that deals with the tooth pulp & tissues

Gum It's a synonym for gingiva

Impacted It's the dentist's term for "heavily-wedged" & applies to some wisdom teeth

Incisors the first primary teeth to appear in a baby are usually of this variety, The pointed upper teeth near the front of the mouth that are also called "eyeteeth" From the Latin for "to cut", it's a tooth adapted for cutting

Malocclusion from Latin for “bad closing”, an overbite is a type of this

Molars have 3-5 cusps and 2 or 3 roots, It's the familiar name for your third & smallest molars Wisdom tooth

Orthodontist To have your teeth straightened, you'd seek out this type of dentist, Orthodontics From the Greek for "straight teeth" it's the dental specialty that makes them that way
Tooth and nail,
People are often willing to "give" eye teeth for something they greatly desire



Beri Beri, disease of peripheral nerves caused by deficiency of vitamin B1, Beriberi was once a major problem in Asia because this grain was polished, removing vitamin B1

Scurvy Scottish doctor James Lind cured this vitamin deficiency disease among sailors by giving them citrus juice, This disease caused by a lack of vitamin C is characterized by bleeding gums & extreme weakness, This disease caused by the lack of ascorbic acid is called Barlow's Disease in infants

Casimir Funk 1884-1967 was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with the first formulation of the concept of vitamins in 1912, which he called vital amines or vitamines.



Anesthesiologist Someone who's trained to put patients to sleep before surgery is called this

Gastroenterologist This type of doctor specializes in the study of the organs of digestion

Geriatrics branch of medicine is concerned with the care & diseases of the elderly

Neurologist Disorders of the brain & nervous system are the concern of this medical specialist
Ophtalmologist eye doctor

Orthopedics This branch of medicine is concerned with the musculoskeletal system


Midwife This person, often a nurse, is trained to deliver babies in a hospital, clinic or home

Optometrist or Optician for eye exam


MEDICAL INVENTORS, doctors and scientists

Hippocrates Though little is known of his life, he did teach medicine at the school of Kos, the island on which he was born

Galen 129– 200ad, was a prominent Roman (of Greek ethnicity) physician, surgeon and philosopher. Physician at the court of Marcus Aurelius; his writings were used throughout the Middle Ages

Nostradamus Prior to his fame as a seer of the future, he treated plague victims in 16th C. France

Andreas Vesalius 1514 –1564 was a Flemish anatomist, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. The family of this "Father of Anatomy" was from Wesel, from which he took his name

William Harvey 1578 –1657 was an English physician. He was the first to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart

Galvani 1737 – 1798 was an Italian physician, physicist and philosopher studied bioelectricity, a field that still today studies the electrical patterns and signals of the nervous system.

Jenner 1749-1823 From cowpox germs, he developed the smallpox vaccine, This British physician has been called the "Father of Immunology" He proved being inoculated with cowpox matter would prevent people from catching smallpox

Louis Pasteur 1822 – 1895 puerperal fever, and he created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His experiments supported the germ theory of disease. pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch.
Robert Koch 1843-1910 discovered TB 1882 German physicist & Nobel Prize winner Robert Koch found that Rats conveyed the black plague.

    Petri 1853 – 1921 was a German bacteriologist who is generally credited with inventing the Petri dish while working as assistant to Robert Koch.

Walter Reed 1851-1902 In 1900, this U.S. Army medical officer proved yellow fever is spread by mosquito bites. His tombstone says, "He gave to man control over that dreadful scourge, yellow fever"

Frederick Banting 1891 – 1941 was a Canadian medical scientist, doctor, painter and Nobel laureate noted as the primary discoverer of insulin. Banting and Best insulin discover on doge

Christiaan Barnard 1922 – 2001 South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first successful human-to-human heart transplant., first heart transplant in Capetown in 1967,

Michael DeBakey 1908 - 2008 was a world-renowned American cardiac surgeon, innovator, scientist, medical educator, and international medical statesman. baylor u, implanted mechanical device to aid heart

Robert Jarvik, M.D, 1946) is an American scientist, researcher and entrepreneur known for his role in developing the Jarvik-7 artificial heart.

Salk 1914 – 1995 American medical researcher and virologist, best known for his discovery and development of the first successful polio vaccine.

Benjamin Spock, 1903 – 1998 American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. Throughout its first 52 years, Baby and Child Care was the second-best-selling book, next to the Bible. Its message to mothers is that "you know more than you think you do."

Frederick Leboyer 1918 is a French obstetrician and author. He is best known for his 1975 book, Birth Without Violence, which popularized gentle birthing techniques, in particular, the practice of immersing newly-born infants in a small tub of warm water — known as a "Leboyer bath"


In 1819, R. Laennec invented stethoscope doctor's instrument, but didn't say to warm it before use

Dr.Scholl In 1904, this ex-shoe salesman & Illinois medical school graduate patented his arch support

Dr. Spock According to the World Almanac, his "Baby and Child Care" is the all-time best selling paperback book

In '53 Dr. J. Gibbon invented Heart Lung machine that permitted cardiac surgery longer than 10 minutes

The 1st mouthwash, it was named for the British doctor who developed antiseptic surgery procedures

In 1866 Thomas Albutt introduced the clinical type of thermometer; old ones took 20 minutes to register

Dorothea Dix 1802–1887 was an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses.

John Charnley invented a procedure for replacing hip joint with an artificial one



American Cancer Society This organization sponsors the Great American Smokeout the third Thursday in November


Amoeba is a genus of Protozoa consisting of shapeless mass of protoplasm,
Poor amoebas! They reproduce by dividing or splitting. If an amoeba wanted to trip a passing protozoan, it would stick this a Pseudopod

Autotroph ("self-feeding" an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis). They are the producers in a food chain, such as plants on land or algae in water.

Bacteria With some helpful & some harmful to humans, they come in 3 shapes: rod-shaped, round & spiral

Bioluminescence is the emission of light from living organisms

Bionics Robotics is related to this "6 million dollar" field of science, also cybernetics

Chlorophyll In 1952, this plant substance was added to toothpaste, gum, soap, & many other things

Cilia The paramecium, a microorganism found in fresh water, moves by means of these tiny, hair-like threads

Core In an apple, it's the "inside" name for the pericarp

Exobiology branch of biology that deals with the search for extraterrestrial life and the effects of extraterrestrial surroundings on living

Gamete common term for a female gamete is egg, During fertilization, two of these cells, one each from the male Sperm & female Ovum, unite to form a zygote


Incubation The period of time between egg laying & hatching is called this


Litmus Vegetable dye that turns red in acid solutions & blue in alkaline solutions

Luciferin is a substance found in certain plants & animals that causes them to glow in the dark

Metanephros is the medical name for kidney found in birds, reptiles & humans

Mitosis It mitosis 1 cell becomes 2; in meiosis a single cell produce this many daughter cells 4

Mycology is the branch of biology that studies mushrooms, yeasts, molds, and other types of these
Osmosis is the net movement of solvent molecules through a partially permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in order to equalize the solute concentrations on the two side

Paramecium To reproduce asexually a paramecium just divides

Petri dish Laboratory culture dish named for the German bacteriologist who invented it, A shallow covered dish used to grow microorganisms for research, named after its inventor

Transpiration evaporation of water from plants

Ungulate is an animal which has hoofs

Virus The Latin for "poison", it needs to be in a living cell to reproduce


Leeuwenhoek 1632 – 1723) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. discovered bacteria in 1600s 17th C. Dutchman noted for his work with the microscope & called the "Father of Microbiology"

Linnaeus 1707 – 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature. In 1735 this Swed. naturalist published "Systema Naturae", naming & classifying plants & animals. The system of giving 2 scientific names to all organisms was devised by this Swedish naturalist, This Swedish botanist, known for his system of classification, was the first to note that whales are mammals

Charles Darwin,  1809 – 1882) was an English naturalist He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species,
Alfred Kinsey 1894 – 1956) sexologist who in 1947 founded Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. He is best known for writing "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" (1948) and "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female" (1953),
He was a world authority on the gall wasp in the '20s before turning to sex research

Rachel Carson Biologist whose most famous work was "Silent Spring"

In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius, also known as the asklepian, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine.

A mortar & pestle & an Rx symbol are featured on a 1972 stamp honoring Pharmacy

Wikipedia online - How reliable is the information on Wikipedia? by Ray Sahelian, M.D.

I really enjoy reading the endless pages on Wikipedia and find a great deal of useful information on this site. However, since some of the info is not always correct, I have mixed feelings about wikipedia. If people can put wrong information, or spin information to their advantage, how reliable could this site be? If you are okay with being able to filter through some misinformation, then Wikipedia is a good source for you. If you prefer to have a higher degree of accuracy from and encyclopedia, then you may consider Brittanica or other sources. Overall, though, I love some of the information on Wikipedia and I am really glad this knowledge is posted on the internet.

Ray Sahelian, M.D. has a page on Wikipedia
In March of 2007, I was notified that someone had started a page regarding me on Wikipedia. I must admit this made me quite happy. However, I few days later, a competitor posted slanderous material on the page, but I was glad that it was removed a week later.

Wikipedia emails
Q. In Wikipedia on 'curcumin', the article states that curcumin is harmful to healthy human tissue. Can you correct this grievous error?
   A. I do not find it my role in correcting the info on Wikipedia, otherwise I would spend the rest of my life correcting information on natural supplements on Wikipedia.

Q. I read your web page on 5-HTP after I had a side effect of severe nightmares after taking 100 mg of 5-HTP. I went on Wikipedia to post the fact that your website on 5-HTP mentions nightmares and vivid dreaming to be common side effects of 5-HTP use, however the editors kept removing the reference. Why is it that something that is correct, such as 5-HTP causing nightmares, not be allowed on Wikipedia when it is so true?
   A. I really don't have a good understanding of the editorial policy of Wikipedia. I find most of the information on Wikipedia to be of good quality, but as with any encyclopedia that tries to be an expert on every topic on the planet, it cannot be accurate all the time.

Q. Dear Dr. Sahelian; I am a colleague from New Zealand who recently became aware of an article in Wikipedia where your name is mentioned. I would like to raise your attention to the article on Dr. Stephen Barrett.
     In one section, accusations of bias and conspiracy, your comments in a reply to Stephen Barrett's e-mail are noted. Editors have also inserted comments about a recent FDA advisory letter ( some calling it a warning letter ). Some editors have tried to spin it in a way that is negative including comments about your site selling drugs and making misleading claims.: Dr Sahelian operates a website marketing drug products to the public, and has been warned by the FDA about making misleading claims on his website. The phrase has been corrected to : Dr. Sahelian is primarily known as an author of health related books, his expertise on supplements and for selling dietary supplements and books on his website. He recently received an advisory letter from the FDA regarding three products offered on his website as they did not comply with existing FDA regulations. However due to the nature of Wikipedia, editors who are so-called anti-quackery advocates may try to revert the phrase, thus the reason for this e-mail so that you are aware of the situation.
     Dr. Sahelian replies: I truly appreciate your email and thank you for making the changes. I like Wikipedia but it bothers me that every time I read information on this site I start thinking in the back of my mind whether all the info is accurate. In this case, it is not. The FDA should have addressed the letter to the CEO of Physician Formulas, not to me. The products I formulate are sold on several web sites. Therefore, the whole sentence should be removed regarding the FDA part, and we would appreciate it if you could do so.

Q. I looked up information about Dr. Ray Sahelian on Wikipedia and there wasn`t very much info and it also said that if somebody doesn`t build on that page that it will be deleted entirely. Wikipedia is very helpful and many people use it to get quick information on just about everything. It also gives a direct link to your web page and is free. In my opinion, you should add to the wikipedia page so that they maintain it.
   A. We are trying to find people who know how to makes changes or add more material.